Phage therapy is considered an alternative modality in the treatment of different bacterial diseases. However, their therapeutic and preventive roles against infections caused by Salmonella Kentucky and Escherichia coli O119 were of little attention. In this study, two phages were isolated, characterized and assessed for their potential therapeutic and preventive roles against S. Kentucky and E. coli O119 infections in broilers. Commercial 1‐day‐old arboacres broiler chicks were assigned to seven groups: Group Ӏ was as a negative control, groups (П and Ш) were assigned as positive controls by the challenge of S. Kentucky and E. coli O119, respectively. The remaining four groups (IV, V, VI and VII) were administrated with five repeated phage doses to determine the effect of multiple doses. Phages were administrated in groups (IV and VI) after challenging with S. Kentucky and E. coli O119, respectively to assess their therapeutic role; moreover, their preventive role was evaluated through administration in groups (V and VII) before challenging with S. Kentucky and E. coli O119, respectively. Sampling was done from different organs at three time points and revealed that phage‐treated groups had lower colony forming units of S. Kentucky and E. coli. Our results suggest that bacteriophages are efficient in the treatment and prevention of salmonellosis and colibacillosis in broiler farms.
The current situation of antibiotic resistance of most bacterial pathogens was a threat to the poultry and public health with increasing economic losses. Regarding this problem, monitoring of the circulating microorganisms occurred with the antibiotic resistance profile. A total of 657 different samples from internal organs (liver, heart, lung, and yolk) and paper-lining chick boxes were collected from native chicken farms which were submitted to the Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production in the period from 2014 to 2018 for the detection of Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Staphylococcus. The bacterial isolates were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion technique. Salmonella was isolated from 128 out of 657 (19.5%), E. coli was isolated from 496 out of 657 (75.5%), and Staphylococcus species was isolated from 497 out of 657 (75.6%). All Salmonella positive samples were examined for antibiotic resistance against 10 different antibiotics, and the highest percentage all over the five years was against penicillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline. All E. coli positive samples were examined for antibiotic resistance against 14 different antibiotics, and the highest percentage all over the five years was with ampicillin, tetracycline, norfloxacin, streptomycin, and danofloxacin. All Staphylococcus positive sample species were examined for antibiotic resistance against 14 different antibiotics, and the highest percentage of resistance all over the five years was shown with tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid.
Background and Aim: Clostridium perfringens is one of the multiple drug-resistant intestinal pathogens causing necrotic enteritis disease, leading to great economic losses in poultry farms. This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of peppermint oil and its microemulsion (ME) as an alternative to antibiotics to control necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Peppermint oil ME formulation (15% oil/water) was prepared and characterized by zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the peppermint oil and its ME were investigated. A total of 80 commercial one day old Arbor Acres broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four groups of 20 birds each. The four groups were the negative control, positive control, peppermint oil (0.5 mL/mL water/10 days old), and its ME (0.25 mL/mL water/10 days old) groups. C. perfringens was orally provided at concentration of 1×108 CFU/mL on days 14, 15, and 16. Clinical signs and mortality were observed daily. Growth performance, gross lesions and cecal samples were investigated and examined on days 21, 28, and 35. Results: Peppermint oil ME formulation has a polydispersity index, zeta potential and droplet size of 0.234, –24 mV±4.19, and 29.96±1.56 nm, respectively. LC–MS/MS analysis of oil and ME revealed common presence of phenolic compounds such as rosmorinic (360.31 g/mol), chlorogenic acid (354.31 g/mol), hesperidin (610.56 g/mol), and luteolin 7-O-β- glucuronide (462.1 g/mol). The treated groups with peppermint oil and ME showed lower lesions, mortality and colony-forming units in addition to higher growth performance (p<0.05) compared to the positive control group. Conclusion: Our study suggests the potential efficacy of peppermint oil and ME in the reduction of necrotic enteritis lesions and C. perfringens count.
Multidrug resistance poses a global threat to the poultry industry and public health, so the direction towards eliminating the use of antibiotics and finding alternatives is a vital step to solve this problem. Thyme microemulsion (10% oil/water) had nanodrop size 28.65 ± 0.89 nm, with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.28 with greater homogeneity. It showed IC50 > 100 ug/ml on cytotoxicity assay and 14 active components by GC-Mass. The study was carried out using 210 Cobb chicks divided into fourteen groups. The infected groups were challenged using two Salmonella Enteritidis multidrug resistance (MDR) and Salmonella Enteritidis sensitive strains to the sulpha-trimethoprim antibiotic. The challenged inoculum was 1 × 109 CFU of Salmonella Enteritidis by oral route. The MIC treatments doses were 1 ml/liter water for thyme oil and thyme microemulsion and 33.34 mg/kg b.wt sulfadiazine for 5 days. The results showed that both thymol oil (0.1%) and microemulsion (0.01%) are able to decrease the count of Salmonella Enteritidis in cecal content and fecal dropping and the mortality rates after five days of treatment. In addition, thyme oil and microemulsion had no pathological alteration on chickens’ tissues that were collected two weeks after giving the treatment. By the robust HPLC method, the SDZ and TMP residues in tissues of infected groups treated with Cotrimazine® + thyme oil microemulsion had a slight significant economic impact ( P < 0.05 ) compared to Cotrimazine® alone. In conclusion, thymol oil and microemulsion could be an alternative economic choice for multidrug resistance Salmonella Enteritidis treatment in poultry farms.
I n addition to its role in food-borne illness all over the world, Salmonella is an important bacterial pathogen in poultry (Osman et al., 2010; Foley et al., 2011). Several serovars have been isolated from both poultry and humans, and poultry can transmit Salmonella to humans (Osman et al., 2010; European Food Safety Authority [EFSA], 2019). The international trade of poultry is one of the factors affecting the spread of salmonellosis (EFSA, 2019) by acting as a portable reservoir for Salmonella (Osman et al., 2010), transmitting infection through the food production chain (Velhner et al., 2018), and vertically through the infected parents (Foley et al., 2011; Osman et al., 2014b), by transmission of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella in the Mediterranean region (Le Hello et al., 2013). EFSA ( 2019) classified salmonellosis as the second human zoonotic disease underlying gastrointestinal illness and (Ezzeldeen et al., 2013) mentioned that the salmonellosis can cause multi-organ systemic infection. In the European Union (EU), salmonellae are estimated to cause research Article Abstract | Monitoring of imported 1-day-old poultry is mandated in Egypt to prevent the possible introduction of new Salmonella serovars into the country's poultry industry. Such serovars are considered to be a major public health threat. We examined 391 imported poultry flocks for the presence of salmonellae (231 duckling, 84 chick, and 76 turkey poult), serotyped all isolated salmonellae, and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Molecular profiles were also constructed based on results of conventional polymerase chain reaction assays to detect virulence genes (stn, avrA, and sopB) and antibiotic resistance genes (blaTEM, tetA(A), and qnrS) in the Salmonella isolates. Thirty Salmonella strains were isolated from the 391 samples (7.7%). By poultry type, salmonellae were isolated from 21 of 231 (9.1%) duckling samples, 6 of 84 (7.1%) of chick samples, and 3 of 76 (3.9%) turkey poult samples. Serotyping of the isolates identified 16 different serovars:
One thousands and eighty one day old chicks were examined for isolation of different bacteria. Salmonella was detected in 11.7% in native chicks while 5.2% among imported chicks, E. coli was isolated from 17.6% in native chicks while 23.6% in imported, Staph aureus was present in 29.4% in native and 5.2% in imported chicks. Serological typing of Salmonella was Salmonella Norwich, Salmonella Wilhelburg in native chicks while in imported chicks were Salmonella Brancoster, Salmonella Sekondi II. E .coli serotyping reveled O125, O153, O86a in native chicks while in imported chicks were O26, O78, O36, O15, O124, O169, O6, O28 and one untypeable strain. Seven Staph aureus isolates five from native and two from imported. Antibiogram of isolated bacteria was done. All Salmonella strains were sensitive to Gentamycin while all E. coli strains were sensitive to Amoxicillin + Clavulanic acid and Nitrofurantoin. All Staph aureus isolates were sensitive to Amoxicillin + Clavulanic acid. . (2008):Antimicrobial resistance in generic Escherichia coli isolated from swine fecal samples in 90 Alberta finishing farms.
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