The current situation of antibiotic resistance of most bacterial pathogens was a threat to the poultry and public health with increasing economic losses. Regarding this problem, monitoring of the circulating microorganisms occurred with the antibiotic resistance profile. A total of 657 different samples from internal organs (liver, heart, lung, and yolk) and paper-lining chick boxes were collected from native chicken farms which were submitted to the Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production in the period from 2014 to 2018 for the detection of Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Staphylococcus. The bacterial isolates were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion technique. Salmonella was isolated from 128 out of 657 (19.5%), E. coli was isolated from 496 out of 657 (75.5%), and Staphylococcus species was isolated from 497 out of 657 (75.6%). All Salmonella positive samples were examined for antibiotic resistance against 10 different antibiotics, and the highest percentage all over the five years was against penicillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline. All E. coli positive samples were examined for antibiotic resistance against 14 different antibiotics, and the highest percentage all over the five years was with ampicillin, tetracycline, norfloxacin, streptomycin, and danofloxacin. All Staphylococcus positive sample species were examined for antibiotic resistance against 14 different antibiotics, and the highest percentage of resistance all over the five years was shown with tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid.
Multidrug resistance poses a global threat to the poultry industry and public health, so the direction towards eliminating the use of antibiotics and finding alternatives is a vital step to solve this problem. Thyme microemulsion (10% oil/water) had nanodrop size 28.65 ± 0.89 nm, with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.28 with greater homogeneity. It showed IC50 > 100 ug/ml on cytotoxicity assay and 14 active components by GC-Mass. The study was carried out using 210 Cobb chicks divided into fourteen groups. The infected groups were challenged using two Salmonella Enteritidis multidrug resistance (MDR) and Salmonella Enteritidis sensitive strains to the sulpha-trimethoprim antibiotic. The challenged inoculum was 1 × 109 CFU of Salmonella Enteritidis by oral route. The MIC treatments doses were 1 ml/liter water for thyme oil and thyme microemulsion and 33.34 mg/kg b.wt sulfadiazine for 5 days. The results showed that both thymol oil (0.1%) and microemulsion (0.01%) are able to decrease the count of Salmonella Enteritidis in cecal content and fecal dropping and the mortality rates after five days of treatment. In addition, thyme oil and microemulsion had no pathological alteration on chickens’ tissues that were collected two weeks after giving the treatment. By the robust HPLC method, the SDZ and TMP residues in tissues of infected groups treated with Cotrimazine® + thyme oil microemulsion had a slight significant economic impact ( P < 0.05 ) compared to Cotrimazine® alone. In conclusion, thymol oil and microemulsion could be an alternative economic choice for multidrug resistance Salmonella Enteritidis treatment in poultry farms.
I n addition to its role in food-borne illness all over the world, Salmonella is an important bacterial pathogen in poultry (Osman et al., 2010; Foley et al., 2011). Several serovars have been isolated from both poultry and humans, and poultry can transmit Salmonella to humans (Osman et al., 2010; European Food Safety Authority [EFSA], 2019). The international trade of poultry is one of the factors affecting the spread of salmonellosis (EFSA, 2019) by acting as a portable reservoir for Salmonella (Osman et al., 2010), transmitting infection through the food production chain (Velhner et al., 2018), and vertically through the infected parents (Foley et al., 2011; Osman et al., 2014b), by transmission of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella in the Mediterranean region (Le Hello et al., 2013). EFSA ( 2019) classified salmonellosis as the second human zoonotic disease underlying gastrointestinal illness and (Ezzeldeen et al., 2013) mentioned that the salmonellosis can cause multi-organ systemic infection. In the European Union (EU), salmonellae are estimated to cause research Article Abstract | Monitoring of imported 1-day-old poultry is mandated in Egypt to prevent the possible introduction of new Salmonella serovars into the country's poultry industry. Such serovars are considered to be a major public health threat. We examined 391 imported poultry flocks for the presence of salmonellae (231 duckling, 84 chick, and 76 turkey poult), serotyped all isolated salmonellae, and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Molecular profiles were also constructed based on results of conventional polymerase chain reaction assays to detect virulence genes (stn, avrA, and sopB) and antibiotic resistance genes (blaTEM, tetA(A), and qnrS) in the Salmonella isolates. Thirty Salmonella strains were isolated from the 391 samples (7.7%). By poultry type, salmonellae were isolated from 21 of 231 (9.1%) duckling samples, 6 of 84 (7.1%) of chick samples, and 3 of 76 (3.9%) turkey poult samples. Serotyping of the isolates identified 16 different serovars:
Background and Aim: Multidrug resistance (MDR) of Escherichia coli has become an increasing concern in poultry farming worldwide. However, E. coli can accumulate resistance genes through gene transfer. The most problematic resistance mechanism in E. coli is the acquisition of genes encoding broad-spectrum β-lactamases, known as extended-spectrum β-lactamases, that confer resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (conferring resistance to quinolones) and mcr-1 genes (conferring resistance to colistin) also contribute to antimicrobial resistance. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of antimicrobial susceptibility and to detect β-lactamase and colistin resistance genes of E. coli isolated from broiler farms in Egypt. Materials and Methods: Samples from 938 broiler farms were bacteriologically examined for E. coli isolation. The antimicrobial resistance profile was evaluated using disk diffusion, and several resistance genes were investigated through polymerase chain reaction amplification. Results: Escherichia coli was isolated and identified from 675/938 farms (72%) from the pooled internal organs (liver, heart, lung, spleen, and yolk) of broilers. Escherichia coli isolates from the most recent 3 years (2018–2020) were serotyped into 13 serotypes; the most prevalent serotype was O125 (n = 8). The highest phenotypic antibiotic resistance profiles during this period were against ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, and nalidixic acid. Escherichia coli was sensitive to clinically relevant antibiotics. Twenty-eight selected isolates from the most recent 3 years (2018–2020) were found to have MDR, where the prevalence of the antibiotic resistance genes ctx, tem, and shv was 46% and that of mcr-1 was 64%. Integrons were found in 93% of the isolates. Conclusion: The study showed a high prevalence of E. coli infection in broiler farms associated with MDR, which has a high public health significance because of its zoonotic relevance. These results strengthen the application of continuous surveillance programs.
Salmonellosis is a major global pathogen in the poultry industry and is a significant public health concern. Ducks are known to be carriers of Salmonella. Therefore, monitoring salmonellosis is the most important strategy for preventing the disease. An experimental design was planned to study the pathogenicity of two Salmonella strains. One hundred and fifty chicks were divided into three groups; group one was inoculated with the Salmonella enteritidis strain, group two was inoculated with the Salmonella typhimurium strain, and group three was UN inoculated. Symptoms, postmortem lesions and mortality rate were recorded. The chick growth performance parameters were also determined. Using ANOVA for statistical analysis, there was a significant difference in body weight, body gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio between the two infected groups and the blank group (uninoculated group). In this study, the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis was (1.73%) and Salmonella typhimurium (0.43%) in imported ducklings in Egypt. Both Salmonella strains were subjected to an antimicrobial sensitivity test. It showed that Salmonella enteritidis had a 60% antimicrobial resistance profile and Salmonella typhimurium had a 20% antimicrobial resistance profile. Furthermore, genotypic characterization was performed and the seven virulence genes(stn, avrA, sopB, ompF, invA, Mgtc, Ssaq) were found. New pathological lesions of Salmonella infection were discovered, such as skull hemorrhage at 3 days and 6 days of age, and a liver similar to a button shape in necropsied infected chicks with Salmonella typhimurium at 21 days of age. Furthermore, hemorrhagic spots were observed on the duodenum. In the presence of Salmonella, Clostridium perferingens was discovered in a bacteriological investigation of duodenal lesions samples from infected chicks. At 30 days of age, administration of acetic acid (1%) as an alternative tool for controlling Salmonella. In conclusion, salmonellosis is a risk factor for necrotic enteritis, and using acetic acid to eliminate salmonella infection is insufficient.
Background and Aim: Biosecurity implementation is fundamental to combating diseases and antibiotic resistance. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the correlation between the implementation of biosecurity measures in small-scale duck farms and the incidence of infectious diseases that threaten the duck industry. Materials and Methods: Twenty small-scale duck farms of different breeds and production stages were collected as representative samples, focused on two districts in the Qalyoubia governorate, which possesses high-density small-scale farms. A 30-point structured questionnaire was designed to assess the level of biosecurity measures implemented in the sampled farms. These farms were examined for bacterial infection by cultivation, typing, and antibiotic sensitivity tests, in addition to molecular techniques for detecting suspected viral diseases. Results: The results showed that the farms had high or low levels of biosecurity; only 25% possessed high-level biosecurity. Bacteria, including Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, and Pasteurella, were isolated from all sampled farms. High rates of antimicrobial resistance-reaching up to 100% were observed against some drugs. However, viral causative agents, including HPAI-H5N8, duck viral hepatitis, and goose parvovirus, were isolated from only five farms. Conclusion: The lack of commitment to biosecurity implementation, particularly personal hygiene, was observed in most sampled farms. Increasing the level of biosecurity reduced the incidence of mixed infections. Keywords: antibiotic resistance, bacterial agents, biosecurity, co-infections, small-scale duck farms, viral diseases.
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