Abstract-We propose a powerful video filtering algorithm that exploits temporal and spatial redundancy characterizing natural video sequences. The algorithm implements the paradigm of nonlocal grouping and collaborative filtering, where a higherdimensional transform-domain representation of the observations is leveraged to enforce sparsity and thus regularize the data: 3-D spatiotemporal volumes are constructed by tracking blocks along trajectories defined by the motion vectors. Mutually similar volumes are then grouped together by stacking them along an additional fourth dimension, thus producing a 4-D structure, termed group, where different types of data correlation exist along the different dimensions: local correlation along the two dimensions of the blocks, temporal correlation along the motion trajectories, and nonlocal spatial correlation (i.e. self-similarity) along the fourth dimension of the group. Collaborative filtering is then realized by transforming each group through a decorrelating 4-D separable transform and then by shrinkage and inverse transformation. In this way, the collaborative filtering provides estimates for each volume stacked in the group, which are then returned and adaptively aggregated to their original positions in the video. The proposed filtering procedure addresses several video processing applications, such as denoising, deblocking, and enhancement of both grayscale and color data. Experimental results prove the effectiveness of our method in terms of both subjective and objective visual quality, and shows that it outperforms the state of the art in video denoising.
Abstract-When dealing with motion blur there is an inevitable trade-off between the amount of blur and the amount of noise in the acquired images. The effectiveness of any restoration algorithm typically depends on these amounts, and it is difficult to find their best balance in order to ease the restoration task. To face this problem, we provide a methodology for deriving a statistical model of the restoration performance of a given deblurring algorithm in case of arbitrary motion. Each restoration-error model allows us to investigate how the restoration performance of the corresponding algorithm varies as the blur due to motion develops.Our modeling treats the point-spread-function trajectories as random processes and, following a Monte-Carlo approach, expresses the restoration performance as the expectation of the restoration error conditioned on some motion-randomness descriptors and on the exposure time. This allows to coherently encompass various imaging scenarios, including camera shake and uniform (rectilinear) motion, and, for each of these, identify the specific exposure time that maximizes the image quality after deblurring.
Just-in-time (JIT) classifiers operate in evolving environments by classifying instances and reacting to concept drift. In stationary conditions, a JIT classifier improves its accuracy over time by exploiting additional supervised information coming from the field. In nonstationary conditions, however, the classifier reacts as soon as concept drift is detected; the current classification setup is discarded and a suitable one activated to keep the accuracy high. We present a novel generation of JIT classifiers able to deal with recurrent concept drift by means of a practical formalization of the concept representation and the definition of a set of operators working on such representations. The concept-drift detection activity, which is crucial in promptly reacting to changes exactly when needed, is advanced by considering change-detection tests monitoring both inputs and classes distributions.
Nanoproducts represent a potential growing sector and nanofibrous materials are widely requested in industrial, medical, and environmental applications. Unfortunately, the production processes at the nanoscale are difficult to control and nanoproducts often exhibit localized defects that impair their functional properties. Therefore, defect detection is a particularly important feature in smart-manufacturing systems to raise alerts as soon as defects exceed a given tolerance level and to design production processes that both optimize the physical properties and control the defectiveness of the produced materials. Here, we present a novel solution to detect defects in nanofibrous materials by analyzing scanning electron microscope images. We employ an algorithm that learns, during a training phase, a model yielding sparse representations of the structures that characterize correctly produced nanofiborus materials. Defects are then detected by analyzing each patch of an input image and extracting features that quantitatively assess whether the patch conforms or not to the learned model. The proposed solution has been successfully validated over 45 images acquired from samples produced by a prototype electrospinning machine. The low computational times indicate that the proposed solution can be effectively adopted in a monitoring system for industrial productio
We propose a powerful video denoising algorithm that exploits temporal and spatial redundancy characterizing natural video sequences. The algorithm implements the paradigm of nonlocal grouping and collaborative filtering, where a higher-dimensional transform-domain representation is leveraged to enforce sparsity and thus regularize the data. The proposed algorithm exploits the mutual similarity between 3-D spatiotemporal volumes constructed by tracking blocks along trajectories defined by the motion vectors. Mutually similar volumes are grouped together by stacking them along an additional fourth dimension, thus producing a 4-D structure, termed group, where different types of data correlation exist along the different dimensions: local correlation along the two dimensions of the blocks, temporal correlation along the motion trajectories, and nonlocal spatial correlation (i.e. self-similarity) along the fourth dimension. Collaborative filtering is realized by transforming each group through a decorrelating 4-D separable transform and then by shrinkage and inverse transformation. In this way, collaborative filtering provides estimates for each volume stacked in the group, which are then returned and adaptively aggregated to their original position in the video. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed procedure which outperforms the state of the art.
Most fraud-detection systems (FDSs) monitor streams of credit card transactions by means of classifiers returning alerts for the riskiest payments. Fraud detection is notably a challenging problem because of concept drift (i.e. customers' habits evolve) and class unbalance (i.e. genuine transactions far outnumber frauds). Also, FDSs differ from conventional classification because, in a first phase, only a small set of supervised samples is provided by human investigators who have time to assess only a reduced number of alerts. Labels of the vast majority of transactions are made available only several days later, when customers have possibly reported unauthorized transactions. The delay in obtaining accurate labels and the interaction between alerts and supervised information have to be carefully taken into consideration when learning in a concept-drifting environment.In this paper we address a realistic fraud-detection setting and we show that investigator's feedbacks and delayed labels have to be handled separately. We design two FDSs on the basis of an ensemble and a sliding-window approach and we show that the winning strategy consists in training two separate classifiers (on feedbacks and delayed labels, respectively), and then aggregating the outcomes. Experiments on large dataset of real-world transactions show that the alert precision, which is the primary concern of investigators, can be substantially improved by the proposed approach.
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