Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are relatively common and are potentially life-threatening medical problems. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the effect of I/R injury on multiorgan failure following AAA repair. The PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline, Cochrane Review, and Scopus databases were comprehensively searched for articles concerning the pathophysiology of I/R and its systemic effects. Cross-referencing was performed using the bibliographies from the articles obtained. Articles retrieved were restricted to those published in English. One of the most prominent characteristics of AAA open repair is the double physiological phenomenon of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) that happens either at the time of clamping or following the aortic clamp removal. Ischemia-reperfusion injury causes significant pathophysiological disturbances to distant organs, increasing the possibility for postoperative multiorgan failure. Although tissue injury is mediated by diverse mechanisms, microvascular dysfunction seems to be the final outcome of I/R.
Menopause is the condition in which the gradual decline in ovarian function finally leads to the permanent cessation of menstruation. Oestrogen deficiency may cause early symptoms during the menopausal transition and late symptoms after menopause. Menopause is a normal period of life. During this period, women need adaptation to new biological, social, and psychological parameters. Vasomotor symptoms are among the most common menopausal symptoms. Menopause per se is not correlated with specific psychiatric disorders, but data suggest that perimenopausal women are more likely to develop depressive disorders even without a previous history. Vasomotor symptoms are correlated with mood and sleep disturbances, neuroticism, anxiety, decreased cognitive function, and stress. Personality traits, social, and other factors are also important mediators of vasomotor symptoms during the menopausal transition phase. This is a review based on the existing evidence concerning the correlation between psychosomatic and vasomotor symptoms of menopause during the menopausal transition period. Healthcare providers should take these correlations into consideration when planning the treatment of vasomotor symptoms. Vasomotor symptoms during menopause are associated with significant social costs. There are numerous traditional hormone therapy, and complementary and alternative therapy including over-the-counter treatments and dietary supplements for managing menopause-related vasomotor symptoms. Additional costs include follow-up physician visits, laboratory testing, management of adverse events, and loss of productivity at work. Social support and planning may help women to deal with menopausal symptoms and may reduce overall social costs during this transitional phase.
Aims. To evaluate carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and biomarkers of the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (OPG/RANKL) system in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) children and adolescents and controls. Subjects and Methods. Fifty six T1DM patients (mean ± SD age: 12.0 ± 2.7 years, diabetes duration: 5.42 ± 2.87 years and HbA1c: 8.0 ± 1.5%) and 28 healthy matched controls, were studied with anthropometric and laboratory measurements, including serum OPG, soluble RANKL (sRANKL) and cIMT. Results. Anthropometric, laboratory, and cIMT measurements were similar between T1DM youngsters and controls. However patients with longer diabetes duration (>/7.0 years) had indicatively higher cIMT (cIMT = 0.49 vs 0.44 mm, P 0.072) and triglyceride levels than the rest of the patients (93.7 vs 64.6 mg/dl, P 0.025). Both in the total study population (β 0.418, P 0.027) and among T1DM patients separately (β 0.604, P 0.013), BMI was the only factor associated with cIMT. BMI was further associated with OPG in both groups (β −0.335, P 0.003 and β −0.356, P 0.008 respectively), while sRANKL levels were not associated with any factor. Conclusions. BMI was the strongest independent predictor of cIMT among the whole population, and especially in diabetics, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of diabetes and adiposity on atherosclerotic burden. BMI was overall strongly associated with circulating OPG, but the causes of this association remain unclear.
microRNAs are effective regulators of gene expression that has a significant role in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer. Research concerning possible therapeutic implications has been promising, although there is still a significant distance to be covered between research observations and clinical results. Extensive preclinical and translational research is still required to improve the efficacy and minimize unwanted effects of miRNAs-based therapy.
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