Anopheles darlingi is a major vector for malaria in Central and South America. Behavioral, ecological, genetic, and morphologic variability has been observed across its wide distribution. Recent studies have documented that 2 distinct genotypes exist for An. darlingi: a northern lineage (Belize, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, and Panama) and a southern lineage (Amazonia and southern Brazil). In order to determine if these genotypes exhibited different behavioral traits, entrance and exit movement patterns between 2 field populations of An. darlingi that represented each genotype were evaluated using experimental huts. The Belize population exhibited bimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. and 5:00-6:00 a.m. and peak exiting occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. The Peru population exhibited unimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 10:00-11:00 p.m. and peak exiting occurring between 11:00-12:00 a.m. with a secondary smaller peak at 2:30 a.m. Entrance and exit behavioral patterns were significantly different between the Belize and Peru populations of An. darlingi (log-rank [Mantel-Cox] P < 0.001). Information from the present study will be used in the future to determine if there is a correlation between genotype and host-seeking behavior and can be used in the present for regional vector risk assessment.
Changes in the expression of genes were observed during development in populations of Anopheles (Anopheles) intermedius and Anopheles (Anopheles) mattogrossensis. Esterase showed seven zones of activity: EST1 was present in all developmental stages of both species; EST2 was observed only in larvae of A. intermedius and larvae and pupae of A. mattogrossensis, with greater activity in pupae; EST3 and EST5 were present in all developmental stages, with greater intensity in larvae; EST4 and EST6 showed weak activity in larvae of A. mattogrossensis and was not found in A. intermedius. Leucine aminopeptidase showed four zones of activity, of which LAP1 and LAP2 were found in all stages of A. intermedius, with highest activity in larvae, and in larvae only of A. mattogrossensis. LAP3 was detected in all stages of A. mattogrossensis and in larvae only of A. intermedius. LAP4 was detected only in larvae and pupae of A. mattogrossensis, with greater intensity in pupae. alpha-Glycerophosphate dehydrogenase showed a single zone of activity, detected in older fourth-instar larvae and becoming more intense from the pupal stage onwards.
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