Human intervention in the Brazilian Amazon region promotes contacts between humans and vectors that may favor the propagation of anopheline mosquitoes and the spread of malaria in the absence of planning and infrastructure to control this disease. Vector ecology studies were carried out to determine the risk areas. These data should help in designing appropriate malaria control measures. Data from 14 different regions are reported. Vectors are able to adapt to different environments, which made it necessary to study each area. The parameters studied were Anopheles breeding sites, species distribution, incidence, feeding preferences, hours of maximum activity of adult mosquitoes, seasonality, resting places, and the presence of Plasmodium. Species complexes were also studied. Anopheles darlingi may be responsible for maintaining malaria in human populations in this region. A reduction in the population density of A. darlingi in a particular geographic area can sometimes cause the disappearance of malaria. This species feeds at night but has a peak of activity at the beginning of the evening and another at dawn. Other species are mainly crepuscular and all anophelines demonstrated pronounced exophilia. The timing of feeding activities was found to vary in areas altered by human intervention and also depended on the time of the year and climatic conditions. The larvae were more abundant in the rivers with a less acidic pH and rural areas showed the highest larval index.
Constant and extensive use of chemical insecticides has created a selection pressure and favored resistance development in many insect species worldwide. One of the most important pyrethroid resistance mechanisms is classified as target site insensitivity, due to conformational changes in the target site that impair a proper binding of the insecticide molecule. The voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV) is the target of pyrethroids and DDT insecticides, used to control insects of medical, agricultural and veterinary importance, such as anophelines. It has been reported that the presence of a few non-silent point mutations in the NaV gene are associated with pyrethroid resistance, termed as ‘kdr’ (knockdown resistance) for preventing the knockdown effect of these insecticides. The presence of these mutations, as well as their effects, has been thoroughly studied in Anopheles mosquitoes. So far, kdr mutations have already been detected in at least 13 species (Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles sacharovi, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles sundaicus, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles vagus, Anopheles paraliae, Anopheles peditaeniatus and Anopheles albimanus) from populations of African, Asian and, more recently, American continents. Seven mutational variants (L1014F, L1014S, L1014C, L1014W, N1013S, N1575Y and V1010L) were described, with the highest prevalence of L1014F, which occurs at the 1014 site in NaV IIS6 domain. The increase of frequency and distribution of kdr mutations clearly shows the importance of this mechanism in the process of pyrethroid resistance. In this sense, several species-specific and highly sensitive methods have been designed in order to genotype individual mosquitoes for kdr in large scale, which may serve as important tolls for monitoring the dynamics of pyrethroid resistance in natural populations. We also briefly discuss investigations concerning the course of Plasmodium infection in kdr individuals. Considering the limitation of insecticides available for employment in public health campaigns and the absence of a vaccine able to brake the life cycle of the malaria parasites, the use of pyrethroids is likely to remain as the main strategy against mosquitoes by either indoor residual spraying (IR) and insecticide treated nets (ITN). Therefore, monitoring insecticide resistance programs is a crucial need in malaria endemic countries.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-450) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Dados sobre o grau de incidência e distribuição de espécies Anopheles, em Ariquemes (RO), evidenciaram que a diversidade é maior na periferia da cidade e que Anopheles darlingi é registrada em praticamente todas as localidades de coleta. O inquérito entomológico revelou níveis diferentes de penetração da espécie na área urbana, podendo-se constatar que os Setores 1 e 3 são áreas livres de malária; Setores 2 e 4 mostram riscos na periferia; e a Área Industrial e Setor de Áreas Especiais, Conjunto BNH, Setor 5 e Vila Velha constituem áreas de alto risco da malária. Nestes últimos, os índices de mosquitos por homem/hora foram os mais elevados, observando-se variações no decorrer das amostragens e conforme a localização da área urbana. Medidas de densidade populacional revelaram mudanças estacionais, sendo os menores valores registrados no período de inverno. A transmissão da malária é discutida, considerando-se: 1) o papel da estrutura física da cidade, na época da fundação, 2) os igarapés que margeam a área urbana e suas relações com o ciclo de desenvolvimento dos anofelinos, 3) os padrões comportamentais da atividade de picar das espécies correlacionados a ambientes naturais e às áreas ecologicamente alteradas, e 4) a importância do manuseio ambiental no controle da malária, para redução da densidade populacional. Para conter o processo migratório do vetor é proposto um cinturão de proteção à cidade, constituído de mata não densa, incluindo também proteção biológica para incentivar a zoofilia dos anofelinos. Os resultados de infecção natural, obtidos em áreas de autoctonia da malária, permitem citar A. darlingi como vetor, sendo discutida a possibilidade de que outras espécies estejam envolvidas na transmissão.
This study relates multiple parameters that are involved in the occurrence and control of malaria in the Amazon. Ebbs and floods, black and white waters, fishponds, and ''repiquete'' (Amazonian waters phenomenon) influence the density of Anopheles darlingi Root, 1926. The adaptive processes, genetic background, and resilience of Anopheles vectors change in response to climate and environmental changes. This study covers the diversity of anophelines, which increases due to anthropic activities. Regarding strategies for vector control, the following measures are important: (1) use mechanical barriers inside houses (screens and impregnated mosquito nets), (2) determine the level of anopheline resistance to insecticides, and (3) determine the effect of the physiological state of females on malaria transmission effectiveness. Bioinsecticides were found to be efficient in the control of immatures, and there was no alteration of the associated fauna. Data on genetic variability and vector populations demonstrated greater polymorphism in intradomicile subpopulations. Furthermore, knowledge on the structural genome and transcriptome of A. darlingi, associated with bio-ecology and evolution, may indicate an adaptive strategy of this species to the Amazon biome. There are anthropic activities and environmental and climatic changes that favor increased vector density, requiring specific control strategies to reduce populations of this species.
Four natural Amazonian Anopheles darlingi populations were analyzed for 19 loci, 12 of which showed variation, i.e., 68.4% of polymorphic loci. The Ariquemes, Rondônia, population was the most variable, with a large number of alleles per locus (2.26 ± 0.27) and high polymorphism (P = 63.15). The highest values of observed and expected intralocus heterozygosity were observed in the Manaus, Amazonas, population (Ho = 0.432 ± 0.11; He = 0.375 ± 0.08), and the lowest in the Cachoeira Porteira, Pará, population (Ho = 0.236 ± 0.09; He = 0.290 ± 0.11). Wright's F-statistic revealed disequilibrium caused by an excess of homozygotes, as shown by the F is > F st values (F is = 0.083 > 0.026) reflecting intrapopulational differentiation. The four populations studied were genetically similar, as indicated by distance and similarity values. Chromosomal variation of Amazon population also did not indicate geographical differentiation, and populations in the central region of the Amazon Basin showed high polymorphism in relation to the marginal populations, which were mainly monomorphic.
Resumo Os estudos de laboratório sobre a biologia de A. darling demonstraram que o ciclo biológico de ovo a adulto se faz, em média, em 15,6 dias e com uma taxa de sobrevivência de 57% quando criados de 25 a 28°C. O número médio de ovos por postura foi de 110±50,61 e eclodiram em média 83,31±48,21, com um tempo médio para eclosão de dois dias. O tempo de desenvolvimento de cada estádio imaturo apresentou variações. O 2.° e 3.° estádios larvais apresentaram um tempo de desenvolvimento menor do que o 1.° e 4° estádios.
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