A systematic analysis of space utilization in the home enclosures of four adult and three juvenile social groups of chimpanzees (Pun troglodytes) was conducted at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. The locations of all members of each group (excluding nursing infants) were recorded several times per week over a 3-month period. Adult chimpanzees were observed significantly more often in small vs large cages, on upper vs lower levels, and near cage perimeters vs cage centers. Analyses of sex differences in adults revealed that adult females are largely responsible for these space use patterns; adult males show only a significantly higher usage of perimeter areas. Individual differences were found in the habitual use of certain enclosure sites. Juveniles show no spatial patterns with regard to the above parameters but appear to evenly use all available space. Both adults and juveniles were observed to be in contact with mesh barriers more often than with solid walls. These findings suggest important elements that should be incorporated into the caging design of captive chimpanzee facilities.
Despite an impressive collection of classical works on the subject, little is known about the frequency or characteristics of Great Power alliance decisions to balance with the weak or bandwagon with the strong. Most works hold that balancing is the predominant Great Power alliance formation behavior, but many examples to the contrary come to mind. We clearly operationalize the concepts of balancing and bandwagoning and find that Great Powers ally with the stronger of two choices (i.e., bandwagon) more often than balance of power theory expects. We argue this surprising finding occurs because Great Powers ally based on interests, not power. We test the generalizability of our argument with a censored probit model of Great Power alliance formation on all Great Powers from 1816 to 1992.
Sixty-one chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from various sources and backgrounds
have been resocialized in a cage setting and integrated into social unit groupings.
Rehabilitated animals have been temporarily recycled into non-destructive research and
This study examined the relationships between male agonistic, affiliative, and sexual behaviors and female estrus condition in captive adolescent and young-adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Data on agonistic, affiliative, and sexual behaviors of 11 males living in three social groups were collected during daily 45 minute observations over a 5 month period. Female estrus condition was assessed daily using the relative size of the female's ano-genital swelling. It was hypothesized that the presence of maximally tumescent females would generate conflicts between males, so an increase in inter-male agonism was predicted. Males exhibited higher rates of agonism toward other males when at least one female in the group was maximally tumescent. Male affiliative behavior directed toward other males and social play with males were affected by the presence and number of maximally tumescent females. Male sexual behaviors increased when maximally tumescent females were present.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.