The main clinical, anatomopathological, and molecular aspects of the infection by Leishmania infantum are described in two cats with multicentric cutaneous, nodular, and ulcerated lesions. The animals were submitted to a clinical examination, followed by serological, molecular and parasitological exams, with culture and isolation of the parasite, and subsequent isoenzymatic characterization. The animals were euthanized and necropsied. Case 1 was an adult, female, mixed-bred stray cat. Case 2 was an adult, male, mixed-bred and domiciled cat. Both were positive for the presence of anti-L. infantum antibodies. In the cytology of the cutaneous nodules and lymph nodes, amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. could be visualized, free and in the interior of the macrophages. In the histopathology, the lesions were characterized by nodular granulomatous and/or ulcerative dermatitis, associated to amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. By means of the polymerase chain reaction, the sequence of the L. infantum kDNA minicircle was amplified. It is concluded that the infection by L. infantum occurs in cats in the State of Paraíba, Northeast region of Brazil and the need to understand the immunological profile of the visceral leishmaniasis in the feline population is highlighted with aimed at the control measures in public health.
Background: Candida spp. are pleomorphic fungi that are commensal inhabitants of the oral, gastrointestinal, upper respiratory and urogenital mucosa of mammals. Candida albicans is described as the most important species. This opportunistic pathogen may produce local or systemic infections in dogs. Local infections have been reported in several tissues and systemic infection is rare in dogs with few reports in the literature describing this presentation. The aim of the present study was to report two cases of cerebral Candida albicans infection in dogs in Brazil.Case: Two cases of cerebral Candida albicans infection in dogs that showed nervous signs are described. In both cases, the brain showed marked asymmetry of the telencephalic hemispheres with multifocal to coalescing yellowish or reddish areas and a partial loss of distinction between gray and white matter. In Case 1, the mediastinal, tracheobronchial and mesenteric lymph nodes, as well as the right kidney and adrenal gland, showed altered architecture due to numerous whitish gray nodules. Histological lesions were characterized by granulomatous (case 1) or pyogranulomatous (case 2) necrotizing meningoencephalitis with intralesional fungal organisms. In case 1, similar granulomatous infiltrate with intralesional fungal organisms was also seen in the lymph nodes, kidney and adrenal gland. In case 2, there was evidence consistent with an underlying infection of canine distemper virus. Were observed lymphoplasmocytic interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid rarefaction in lymph nodes, and viral intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the stomach and vesical urothelium. In these two cases, the fungal organisms displayed three different morphological patterns. The first pattern was characterized by delicate tubular structures with thin parallel walls that were rarely septate and tended to undulate slightly, and measured approximately 4-20 µm (true hyphae). The second pattern was characterized by chains of elongated yeast, separated by constrictions at septal sites, and measured approximately 4-10 µm (pseudohyphae). The other morphological pattern, which was rarely observed, was characterized by round budding yeast cells that measured 3-4 µm in diameter and were often elongated by the germ tube. Sections were also stained using immunohistochemical antibodies against Candida albicans. The fungi revealed strong immunolabelling of the cytoplasm and wall for Candida albicans.Discussion: The diagnosis was based on the histomorphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the agent, which were consistent with Candida albicans. In these two cases, immunocompromise appeared to have been an important factor in the progression of the infection. In case 1, the dog was senile and treated with corticosteroids, conditions that could effectively limit innate, humoral and cell-mediated immune response to infection. In case 2, the dog displayed cachexia and was infected by canine distemper virus, evidenced by the presence of viral inclusion bodies. The inflammatory reactions in both cases were characteristic of fungal infections, but were distinct due to differences in the infectious process. In case 1, there was a subacute to chronic progression; while in case 2 neutrophilic infiltrate predominated, suggesting an acute progression. The different morphological patterns of the fungi suggested a pleomorphic fungi and the immunohistochemistry allowed us to identify the infectious agent. In conclusion, opportunistic infections caused by Candida albicans should be considered when diagnosing diseases that affect the central nervous system of dogs, particularly in immunosuppressed animals.
Background: Papillomas are cutaneous neoplasms, also known as warts. They are usually benign and are caused by a papillomavirus. The development of papillomas in certain locations on the body may cause irreparable consequences. Paraphimosis is a urological emergency characterized by the inability of the penis to retract or the impossibility of retention inside the foreskin, causing local circulatory disorders and severe pain. However, the association between genital papillomas and the development of paraphimosis in horses has not been previously documented. The objective here is to describe the clinical and histopathological aspects of a case of penile papilloma associated with persistent paraphimosis in a horse.Case: A 15-year-old mixed-breed, 350 kg, horse presented nodular and crusted lesions, similar to warts, on the penis and foreskin, which progressed over at least six months. An incisional biopsy of one of the nodular lesions of the horse's penis was performed. Tissue fragments were collected, packed in 10% buffered formaldehyde, and sent for histopathological evaluation to the Animal Pathology Laboratory of the University Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Campus de Patos, Paraíba. The biopsy resulted in a histopathological diagnosis of papilloma, and the horse was reevaluated. Due to the severity of the clinical case, it was referred to the HVU/UFCG Large Animal Medical and Surgical Clinic for surgical removal of the penis. The penectomy product was sent to the Animal Pathology Laboratory. Macroscopically, the penis fragment measured 18.0×10.5×6.0 cm in size, had an irregular surface, and presented with numerous multilobulated, reddish nodules on a sessile base, which were exophytic with projections having the appearance of a "cauliflower." The nodules extended from the foreskin and compromised from the base of the penis to the glans. When cut, the nodules were soft, yellowish-white, and had an uneven surface. In the histological evaluation, diffuse and marked hyperplasia of the keratinocytes in both the basal cell layer and spinous layer (acanthosis) was observed, often with formations of digitiform projections. The keratinocytes had multifocal areas of intercellular (spongiosis) and intracellular (balloon degeneration) edema. In the upper layers of the spinous stratum, cells with small, hyperchromatic and eccentric nuclei were seen, which were surrounded by a clear perinuclear halo (koilocytes). In the supra-adjacent stratum corneum, diffuse and moderate parakeratotic hyperkeratosis was observed. Immunohistochemistry showed strong brown immunostaining of the cytoplasm and keratinocyte nuclei by anti-papillomavirus antibodies.Discussion: The clinical manifestation of papillomas varies according to multiple factors, including the immune and nutritional status of the animal. Generally, papillomavirus infections are subclinical, unlike the present case. Due to the severity of the proliferation of papillomas, surgical amputation of the penis was necessary as a therapeutic measure. This type of intervention is considered uncommon or rare in cases of papillomatosis, as well as in the development of secondary paraphimosis. The permanent exposure of the penis resulted in discomfort, pain, inflammation, local infection, and self-mutilation, due to intense itching. Eventually, papillomas may be associated with the appearance of squamous cell carcinoma, a malignant tumor. In this case, the papilloma in the foreskin and penis triggered paraphimosis, with subsequent traumatic injuries to the glans and opportunistic infections that led to amputation of the organ.
Background: Fungi of the genus Aspergillus are ubiquitous microorganisms of opportunistic character, of which animals and humans are continually exposed. Are described three main forms of aspergillosis in dogs: nasal, disseminated and bronchopulmonary. This form which is restricted to the lung parenchyma is considered rare in dogs. The aim of this paper is to report a case of pulmonary aspergillosis associated to acute myocardial infarction in a dog, focusing on epidemiological, clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics. Case: A male dog, 4-year-old, Pinscher, clinically presented dyspnea, anorexia, vomiting, concentrated urine and dark and mollifed faeces. On physical examination, there were congested oral and conjunctival mucosas, dehydration and petechiae in the outer ear. The animal died fve days after the clinical attendance and was sent for necropsy. The macroscopic lesions were restricted to the lung, heart and liver. There were multifocal areas of consolidation in the lung parenchyma and yellowish content in the trachea and bronchi lumen. The heart was rounded and with pale areas in the myocardium. Liver was discreet accentuation of the lobular pattern. Histologically the lesion was characterized by pyogranulomatous and necrotizing bronchopneumonia, multifocal to coalescing, moderate, associated with myriads of intralesional hyphae consistente with Aspergillus spp., associated with acute myocardial infarction. The hyphae weakly stained basophilic by hematoxylin and eosin were strongly impregnated by Grocott’s methenamine silver nitrate and showed strong immunolabelling of the cytoplasm, which were evidenced in brown. There were areas of acute myocardial infarction and hepatocellular degeneration and congestion in the liver, although fungal hyphae were not observed in these tissues. Discussion: The diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis was established based on the morphological and tinctorial characteristics of the agent and confrmed by immunohistochemistry. In this case, is not included in the clinical history any conditions that could promote immunosuppression, neither were observed morphological changes in the pathological examination which suggested other intercurrent diseases. It is likely that the dog has been exposed to the inhalation of large amounts of conidia for a long period of time, condition that favors the occurrence of the disease, even in immunocompetent animals. Probably were not evidenced severe respiratory clinical signs, that characterize the pulmonary impairment, due to the shortcourse of the disease. The pyogranulomatous and necrotizing inﬂammatory reaction is typical of fungal infection and was restricted to the lung parenchyma. The areas of coagulation necrosis observed in the myocardium are probably secondary to vascular injury caused by the fungi, with subsequent thromboembolism, ischemia and infarction. In Brazil, there are few reports of aspergillosis in dogs, have been reported the nasal and systemic forms. In the world literature, there are few reports about this bronchopulmonary form of the disease. Although uncommon, pulmonary aspergillosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diseases that affect the lower respiratory tract of dogs, as well as it’s systemic complications resulting from angioinvasive characteristic of the fungus, which in this case was determinant to the death of the animal. Keywords: Aspergillus, fungal disease, respiratory tract
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