We evaluated sperm concentration, motility, motion variables and hormonal levels in these men.
RESULTSThere were no significant differences among the groups in sperm concentration or motility, or in levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, or serum total testosterone. Also, sperm motion characteristics did not differ across the groups. Semen volume was the only semen variable which tended to decrease according to the number of cigarettes smoked.
CONCLUSIONSCigarette smoking had no apparent effect on sperm concentration, motility or reproductive hormonal levels, but tended to reduce semen volume.
KEYWORDSsemen, spermatozoa, cigarette, infertility
OBJECTIVETo evaluate the semen quality and hormonal levels in fertile men according to their level of cigarette smoking.
SUBJECTS AND METHODSWe evaluated 889 fertile men who came for a vasectomy for sterilization purposes. The men included 522 non-smokers, 143 mild smokers ( < 10 cigarettes/day), 154 moderate smokers (11-20/day), and 70 heavy smokers ( > 20/day).
levels and both testicular volumes were compared.
RESULTSThere were no differences among the groups in the levels of LH, testosterone, or right and left testicular volumes. There were differences among the five groups in FSH levels, semen volume, sperm concentration and motility. Normal morphology according to the World Health Organisation criteria was significantly lower in patients aged > 45 years. From a linear regression analysis, semen volume, sperm concentration and motility decreased by 0.01 mL, 2.1%, and 0.27%, respectively, per year, and the FSH level increased by 0.27%.
CONCLUSIONSSperm concentration and motility decrease and FSH levels increase with age. Normal sperm morphology decreases from 45 years old. Thus, the ageing effect should be considered when proposing standard values for semen characteristics in routine semen analysis.
Infertility affects up to 15% of the sexually active population, and in 50% of cases, a male factor is involved, either as a primary problem or in combination with a problem in the female partner. Because many commonly encountered drugs and medications can have a detrimental effect on male fertility, the medical evaluation should include a discussion regarding the use of recreational and illicit drugs, medications, and other substances that may impair fertility. With the knowledge of which drugs and medications may be detrimental to fertility, it may be possible to modify medication regimens or convince a patient to modify habits to decrease adverse effects on fertility and improve the chances of achieving a successful pregnancy. Concern is growing that male sexual development and reproduction have changed for the worse over the past 30 to 50 years. Although some reports find no changes, others suggest that sperm counts appear to be decreasing and that the incidence of developmental abnormalities such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism appears to be increasing, as is the incidence of testicular cancer. These concerns center around the possibility that our environment is contaminated with chemicals--both natural and synthetic--that can interact with the endocrine system.
Introduction: To compare the semen quality score and the seminal oxidative stress reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidant capacity (ROS-TAC score) in men with idiopathic infertility with normal donors and to a known group of fertile and infertile men. Material and Methods: Principal component analysis was applied to provide a standardized score in 36 men with idiopathic infertility and 19 controls attending our infertility clinic. A logistic regression analysis comparing the fertile and infertile men was used. Results: Compared to controls, patients with idiopathic infertility had significantly lower sperm concentration, sperm motility and normal morphology (p < 0.05) and lower semen quality scores (83.0 ± 14.5 vs. 100.0 ± 10.0; p < 0.001). Compared to controls, the ROS levels were higher in the idiopathic infertility group (2.3 ± 0.21 vs. 1.3 ± 0.3; p = 0.006), whereas the TAC levels were lower in the idiopathic infertility (1,014.75 ± 79.22 vs. 1,653 ± 115.29; p = 0.001). Idiopathic infertility patients had lower ROS-TAC scores (32.8 ± 14.2) than controls (50.0 ± 10.0) (p < 0.001). 64% of men with idiopathic infertility will remain infertile during 1-year follow-up. Conclusions: Patients with idiopathic infertility have lower scores of semen quality and ROS-TAC.
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