Molecular and morphological data analyses matrices are very informative tools for the estimation of genetic distances. We used AFLP markers, morphological traits and combined analysis to estimate the genetic distances between wheat genotypes and ascertain any associations between the two techneques. Nineteen wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and field evaluated for two years. The matrices obtained by morphological and molecular marker data analyses revealed a significant but moderate correlation (r = 0.47), indicating that such techniques sample distinct genome regions. The combined analysis was found to be highly correlated with AFLP (r = 0.97) and moderately correlated with morphological (r = 0.59) markers. A possible explanation for such results is a bias caused by the much higher number of AFLP (229) than morphological (17) markers. Thus, it is evident that the combined analysis is not efficient when a very dissimilar number of markers are used in each isolated technique. Therefore, to obtain a better knowledge of the degree of divergence among genotypes it is necessary to consider each analysis separately.
Rice is a model genome for cereal research, providing important information about genome structure and evolution. Retrotransposons are common components of grass genomes, showing activity at transcription, translation and integration levels. Their abundance and ability to transpose make them good potential markers. In this study, we used 2 multilocus PCR-based techniques that detect retrotransposon integration events in the genome: IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism) and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism). Markers derived from Tos17, a copia-like endogenous retrotransposon of rice, were used to identify genetic similarity among 51 rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.). Genetic similarity analysis was performed by means of the Dice coefficient, and dendrograms were developed by using the average linkage distance method. A cophenetic correlation coefficient was also calculated. The clustering techniques revealed a good adjustment between matrices, with correlation coefficients of 0.74 and 0.80, or lower (0.21) but still significant, between IRAP and REMAP-based techniques. Consistent clusters were found for Japanese genotypes, while a subgroup clustered the irrigated Brazilian genotypes.
BackgroundCassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root provides a staple food source for millions of people worldwide. Increasing the carotenoid content in storage root of cassava could provide improved nutritional and health benefits. Because carotenoid accumulation has been associated with storage root color, this study characterized carotenoid profiles, and abundance of key transcripts associated with carotenoid biosynthesis, from 23 landraces of cassava storage root ranging in color from white-to-yellow-to-pink. This study provides important information to plant breeding programs aimed at improving cassava storage root nutritional quality.ResultsAmong the 23 landraces, five carotenoid types were detected in storage root with white color, while carotenoid types ranged from 1 to 21 in storage root with pink and yellow color. The majority of storage root in these landraces ranged in color from pale-to-intense yellow. In this color group, total β-carotene, containing all-E-, 9-Z-, and 13-Z-β-carotene isomers, was the major carotenoid type detected, varying from 26.13 to 76.72 %. Although no α-carotene was observed, variable amounts of a α-ring derived xanthophyll, lutein, was detected; with greater accumulation of α-ring xanthophylls than of β-ring xanthophyll. Lycopene was detected in a landrace (Cas51) with pink color storage root, but it was not detected in storage root with yellow color. Based on microarray and qRT-PCR analyses, abundance of transcripts coding for enzymes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis were consistent with carotenoid composition determined by contrasting HPLC-Diode Array profiles from storage root of landraces IAC12, Cas64, and Cas51. Abundance of transcripts encoding for proteins regulating plastid division were also consistent with the observed differences in total β-carotene accumulation.ConclusionsAmong the 23 cassava landraces with varying storage root color and diverse carotenoid types and profiles, landrace Cas51 (pink color storage root) had low LYCb transcript abundance, whereas landrace Cas64 (intense yellow storage root) had decreased HYb transcript abundance. These results may explain the increased amounts of lycopene and total β-carotene observed in landraces Cas51 and Cas64, respectively. Overall, total carotenoid content in cassava storage root of color class representatives were associated with spatial patterns of secondary growth, color, and abundance of transcripts linked to plastid division. Finally, a partial carotenoid biosynthesis pathway is proposed.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12870-016-0826-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Resumo -O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a divergência genética entre acessos de mandioca açucarados e não açucarados, por meio de marcadores moleculares, caracteres quantitativos e qualitativos, bem como determinar a correlação entre essas estimativas. Foram utilizados quatro acessos de mandioca açucarados e quatro não açucarados, com duas variedades locais e duas comerciais. Os acessos foram avaliados em campo, em laboratório, com marcadores RAPD, quanto a 12 caracteres quantitativos e 33 morfológicos. Foram estimadas as matrizes de dissimilaridade/distância genética entre os acessos, por meio dos caracteres qualitativos e quantitativos e da significância da correlação entre as matrizes. A divergência genética entre os acessos foi elevada e os acessos açucarados foram diferenciados das variedades não açucaradas locais e comerciais. As distâncias estimadas, por meio de marcadores moleculares e caracteres qualitativos, evidenciaram elevada associação entre si e associação moderada com a estimada por meio de caracteres quantitativos.Termos para indexação: Manihot esculenta, melhoramento genético, recursos genéticos, variabilidade genética. Genetic divergence among sugary and nonsugary cassava accessionsAbstract -The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic divergence among sugary and nonsugary cassava accessions, through molecular markers, and quantitative and qualitative characters, as well as to determine the correlation among these estimates. Four sugary cassava accessions and four nonsugary ones were used, including two landraces and two nonsugary improved varieties. The accessions were evaluated in field conditions and in laboratories, with RAPD markers, in 12 quantitative and 33 qualitative characters. Matrixes of genetic dissimilarity/distance among accessions were estimated, based on qualitative and quantitative characters, molecular markers, and on the correlation significance among matrixes. High genetic divergence among the evaluated accessions was observed, the sugary accessions were differentiated from the landraces and improved nonsugary varieties. The distances estimated through molecular markers and qualitative characters showed the high association among each other and moderate association with the distance estimated through quantitative characters.
ResumoO objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar e estimar a variabilidade genética entre acessos de mandioca de indústria, com potencial de adaptação às condições do Cerrado do Brasil Central, por meio de caracteres quantitativos, qualitativos e marcadores moleculares de forma isolada e conjunta, bem como estimar a correlação entre as estimativas obtidas com base em cada grupo de caracteres. Dezesseis acessos de mandioca de indústria com potencial de adaptação às condições do Cerrado do Brasil Central foram avaliados a campo quanto a 11 caracteres quantitativos e 33 caracteres qualitativos, em experimento conduzido na Embrapa Cerrados. Os acessos foram também avaliados quanto a marcadores RAPD em laboratório. Posteriormente, foram estimadas as matrizes de dissimilaridade/distância genética entre os acessos por meio dos caracteres qualitativos, quantitativos e marcadores moleculares e pela análise conjunta dos dados. Além disso, foi estimada a correlação entre as matrizes. No grupo de acessos de indústria avaliados existe ampla variabilidade quanto aos caracteres quantitativos, qualitativos e moleculares aferidos. As únicas correlações significativas encontradas foram entre (i) a matriz de dissimilaridade estimada por meio da análise conjunta e a matriz de dissimilaridade estimada por meio de dados qualitativos (r = 0,52) e; (ii) a matriz de dissimilaridade estimada por meio da análise conjunta e a matriz de dissimilaridade estimada por meio de marcadores moleculares (r= 0,75). A fraca associação entre essas medidas indicou que a melhor estratégia para orientar ações de conservação e uso de germoplasma de mandioca de indústria é por meio de estudos de divergência genética com o emprego de marcadores moleculares, caracteres qualitativos e caracteres quantitativos de forma conjunta e complementar.
The sweet cassava cultivars BRS 396, BRS 397, BRS 398 and BRS 399, were selected through 27 participatory tests conducted at Distrito Federal, Brazil. Their agronomic performance and their high level of acceptance among producers qualify them as a new crop option for cultivation in the region.
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