In order to study the embryo recovery rate using the transcervical technique in Saanen goats raised in the tropics, 20 donors were submitted to an oestrus synchronisation treatment using intravaginal progestagen sponges for 11 days. On the ninth day of treatment, goats received intramuscular injections of 50 µg cloprostenol and six injections of porcine follicle stimulating hormone (pFSH) at 12-hour intervals. Does in oestrus were mated by Saanen bucks. Donors received an intramuscular injection of 50 µg cloprostenol 24 hours before embryo collection. At this time, the ovaries were observed by laparoscopy to verify the ovulation rate. The embryo recovery was performed six to seven days after oestrus onset by transcervical technique. Goats in which the cervix was not penetrable were submitted to embryo recovery by laparotomy. The recovered embryos were classified according to the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) guidelines. Oestrus was observed in 85% of goats. A response to superovulatory treatment was observed in 65% of goats and a mean ovulation rate of 11.5 ± 6.6 was recorded. The cervix was penetrable in 61.5% of goats. In the remaining goats the embryo recovery was performed by laparotomy. The recovery rate was 53.2% and 36.9% using transcervical and surgical methods, respectively. Quanti-qualitative embryo production was similar in both techniques. Embryo recovery by the transcervical technique was shown to be an alternative for collection of embryos in Saanen goats. However, further studies should be done in order to improve both the cervix penetrability and embryo recovery rate.
In order to produce transgenic goats with hG-CSF, a total of 24 adult Saanen and 48 adult undefined breed goats were used as donors and recipients, respectively. Donors were estrus-synchronized with vaginal sponges and superovulated by a treatment with 200 mg FSH given twice daily in decreasing doses over 3 days starting 48 h before sponge removal. Ovulation was induced by injecting 100 µg GnRH 36 h after sponge removal. The recipients also received an estrus synchronization treatment. Donors were mated with fertile Saanen bucks and, approximately 72 h after sponge removal, zygotes were recovered surgically by flushing oviducts. The recovered zygotes were briefly centrifuged to a reliable visualization of the pronuclei. The DNA construct containing hG-CSF gene flanked by goat and bovine αs1-casein sequences was injected into pronuclei of 129 zygotes. The microinjected embryos (3-6 per female) were transferred to 27 recipients. Ten recipients became pregnant and 12 kids were born. One transgenic male founder was identified in the group of kids. This is the first report of a birth of a transgenic goat in Latin America.
RESUMO.-[Identificação e resistência antimicrobiana de membros da família Enterobacteriaceae isolados de canários (Serinus canaria).]A família Enterobacteriaceae possui bactérias com potencial zoonótico e a presença destas bactérias em canários é relatada na literatura, porém a realidade dos plantéis de criadores de canários é desconhecida. Portanto, este trabalho teve como objetivo isolar enterobactérias de canários belga (Serinus canarius) com o intuito de conhecer os gêneros mais comuns nestas aves e suas respectivas resistências a antimicrobianos. De fevereiro a junho de 2013 foram coletadas 387 amostras de swabs cloacais de canários de oito propriedades da cidade de Fortaleza, Brasil e de 58 necropsias de aves do acervo próprio do Laboratório de Estudos Ornitológicos. As amostras foram submetidas a isolamento microbiológico utilizando-se água peptonada e ágar MacConkey. As colônias foram selecionadas de acordo com suas características morfológicas nas placas, submetidas à tipificação bioquímica para identificação e ao teste de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos. The Enterobacteriaceae family contains potentially zoonotic bacteria, and their presence in canaries is often reported, though the current status of these in bird flocks is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the most common genera of enterobacteria from canaries (Serinus canaria) and their antimicrobial resistance profiles. From February to June of 2013, a total of 387 cloacal swab samples from eight domiciliary breeding locations of Fortaleza city, Brazil, were collected and 58 necropsies were performed in canaries, which belonged to the Laboratory of Ornithological Studies. The samples were submitted to microbiological procedure using buffered peptone water and MacConkey agar. Colonies were selected according to their morphological characteristics on selective agar and submitted for biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 61 isolates were obtained, of which 42 were from cloacal swabs and 19 from necropsies. The most isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli with twenty five strains, followed by fourteen Klebsiella spp., twelve Enterobacter spp., seven Pantoea agglomerans, two Serratia spp. and one Proteus mirabilis. The antimicrobial to which the strains presented most resistance was sulfonamides with 55.7%, followed by ampicillin with 54.1% and tetracycline with 39.3%. The total of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR) was 34 (55.7%). In conclusion, canaries harbor members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and common strains present a high antimicrobial resistance rate, with a high frequency of MDR bacteria. 34 (55,7%). Portanto, conclui-se que os canários albergam enterobactérias e que as cepas apresentam alto índice de resistência a antimicrobianos, com alta frequência de cepas RMD.
Utilizou-se a sincronização do estro com esponjas vaginais de 30mg de acetato de fluorogestona durante 12 dias para avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de eCG sobre o desempenho reprodutivo de ovelhas. Na retirada das esponjas as ovelhas foram divididas em três grupos para receberem 0 (n=26), 200 (n=30) ou 400UI (n=30) de eCG. O estro foi detectado a cada 12h utilizando-se um rufião. As fêmeas foram inseminadas por laparoscopia 60h após a retirada das esponjas. Realizaram-se colheitas de sangue aos 5 e 18 dias pós-inseminação para dosagem de progesterona e determinação do número de ovulações e prenhezes, respectivamente. A fertilidade foi verificada por ecografia aos 60 dias e ao parto. Das 86 ovelhas 70,9% apresentaram estro. Essa porcentagem foi maior (P<0,05) nas fêmeas tratadas com eCG: 96,7% (400UI) e 76,7% (200UI) versus 34,6% (0 UI). O intervalo entre o final do tratamento e o início do estro foi maior (P<0,05) no grupo sem eCG, 54,7±6,3h versus 45,9±7,8h para 200UI e 40,4±10,3h para 400UI. Verificou-se menor (P<0,05) número de ovulações e prenhezes no grupo sem eCG. A não aplicação de eCG influiu negativamente no desempenho reprodutivo de ovelhas deslanadas.
The psittacine Pyrrhura griseipectus is a threatened species currently only found in Ceará State, Brazil. A microbiological survey was conducted to determine the composition of the enteric microbiota of this species, as well as the phenotypic profiles of antimicrobial susceptibility presented by the isolates. Cloacal swabs were collected from individual birds and submitted to microbiological processing. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were evaluated using the disk diffusion method. Bacteria of the genus Escherichia,
This study showed a low prevalence of Salmonellaspp. in captive psittacines from zoos and a commercial establishment of Fortaleza. None of the isolated serotypes (S. Lexington, S. Saintpaul and S. Newport) have yet been reported in Amazona aestiva, Ara chloropteraor Melopsittacus undulatus. However, the fact that most birds presented negative for Salmonellaspp. may not imply the absence of this pathogen in these birds, since the intermittent excretion is a well-known characteristic of this microorganism.
ABSTRACT.-Souza W.L., Moraes E.A., Costa J.M.S., Souza P.H.F., Lopes Junior E.S., Oliveira R. The aim was to evaluate the effect of adding different concentrations of melatonin in ram semen diluted after cryopreservation. Ten ejaculates were collected0 from three adult ram (n=30) by means of artificial vagina for sheep. The collected samples were diluted in Tris-egg yolk, to a final concentration 200x10 6 sptz/mL kept in water bath at 32°C, and melatonin added as treatments: control; 100pM; 100nM; 100μM and 1mM melatonin. Then, the samples were cooled in a cold chamber at 5°C for two hours, in straws of 0.5mL and sealed. They were stored under the liquid nitrogen vapor for 15 minutes to 8cm of liquid blade and frozen with liquid nitrogen. Samples were analyzed for sperm motility, membrane integrity, acrosomal membrane, mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress and quantification of the binding capacity. The variables were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The total and progressive motility of thawed sperm were higher in samples treated with 100pM melatonin (62.99 and 45.07%, respectively; P<0.05) when compared to other treatments. The addition of different concentrations of melatonin in semen diluted with the exception of 1mM concentration, a higher percentage of cells with intact plasma membrane, as compared with the control (P<0.05). The percentage of sperm with acrosome membrane integrity was higher in the semen with 100pM melatonin (P<0.05) than the other treatments. The high mitochondrial activity was higher in spermatozoa treated with 100pM melatonin (69.30%; P<0.05). Addition of 100nM melatonin reduced the amount of TBARS after cryopreservation (2.84, P<0.05) when compared with the other treatments. After thawing, the number of sperm which bind to the perivitelline membrane was higher in the melatonin treated with 100pM (155,73; P<0.05). Therefore, melatonin addition the semen diluted can be useful to enhance the cryopreservation of sheep semen, improving fertilization rates through artificial insemination.
For 6 months, 10 adult Saanen crossbred goats were fed undernutrition diet (70% maintenance), and finally five goats were refed for 6 weeks with 150% maintenance. In all animals oestrus was synchronized using 45 mg FGA vaginal sponge for 11 days, 300 IU eCG and 50 microg cloprostenol 48 h prior to sponge removal. From oestrus onset, during a 24-h period, blood samples were collected for oestradiol and NEFA assay. Ovulation was verified by laparoscopy 3 days after sponge removal. Body mass loss was 18.62 +/- 3.03% of initial weight and in refed goats body weight recovery was 90.63 +/- 3.56%. NEFA level was higher in restricted goats (p < 0.05). Fifty per cent of underfed goats (2/4) and all refed goats (4/4) exhibited oestrus and ovulation. Significant relationship (p < 0.05) was found between weight loss and the interval sponge removal-oestrus onset (r = 0.91) or ovulation rate (r = 0.70). Only in the refed group was the ovulation rate related to the oestradiol amount (r = 0.99) (p < 0.05). Collectively results showed that a short period of improved feeding re-established the responsiveness of oestrus synchronization in chronically fasted goats.
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