The aim of this study was to evaluate the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR) as a tool for molecular typing of C. pseudotuberculosis isolates from eight different hosts in twelve countries. Ninety-nine C. pseudotuberculosis field strains, one type strain (ATCC 19410T) and one vaccine strain (1002) were fingerprinted using the ERIC-1R and ERIC-2 primers, and the ERIC-1R+ERIC-2 primer pair. Twenty-nine different genotypes were generated by ERIC 1-PCR, 28 by ERIC 2-PCR and 35 by ERIC 1+2-PCR. The discriminatory index calculated for ERIC 1, ERIC 2, and ERIC 1+2-PCR was 0.89, 0.86, and 0.92, respectively. Epidemiological concordance was established for all ERIC-PCR assays. ERIC 1+2-PCR was defined as the best method based on suitability of the amplification patterns and discriminatory index. Minimal spanning tree for ERIC 1+2-PCR revealed three major clonal complexes and clustering around nitrate-positive (biovar Equi) and nitrate-negative (biovar Ovis) strains. Therefore, ERIC 1+2-PCR proved to be the best technique evaluated in this study for genotyping C. pseudotuberculosis strains, due to its usefulness for molecular epidemiology investigations.
Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a chronic disease that affects sheep and goats worldwide, and its etiological agent is Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Despite the economic losses caused by CLA, there is little information about the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis, and current immune prophylaxis against infection has been unable to reduce the incidence of CLA in goats. Recently, 21 different mutant strains of C. pseudotuberculosis were identified by random mutagenesis. In this study, these previously generated mutants were used in mice vaccination trials to develop new immunogens against CLA. Based on this analysis, CZ171053, an iron-acquisition-deficient mutant strain, was selected. After challenge with a virulent strain, 80% of the animals that were immunized with the CZ171053 strain survived. Furthermore, this vaccination elicited both humoral and cellular responses. Intracellular survival of the bacterium was determined using murine J774 cells; in this assay, the CZ171053 had reduced intracellular viability. Because iron acquisition in intracellular bacteria is considered one of their most important virulence factors during infection, these results demonstrate the immunogenic potential of this mutant against CLA.
Since the first successful attempt at sequencing the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis genome, large amounts of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data have been generated. C. pseudotuberculosis is an interesting bacterium due to its great zoonotic potential and because it causes considerable economic losses worldwide. Furthermore, different strains of C. pseudotuberculosis are capable of causing various diseases in different hosts. Currently, we seek information about the phylogenetic relationships between different strains of C. pseudotuberculosis isolates from different hosts across the world and to employ these data to develop tools to diagnose and eradicate the diseases these strains cause. In this review, we present the latest findings on C. pseudotuberculosis that have been obtained with the most advanced techniques for sequencing and genomic organization. We also discuss the development of in silico tools for processing these data to prompt a better understanding of this pathogen.
Objective: To identify some aspects of infective valve endocarditis treated by heart surgery, as well as antibiotic therapy, in a public hospital in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil, from 1988 to 2003. Method: A retrospective and observational study was performed of 64 patients with infective valve endocarditis who required aortic and/or mitral valve replacement, tricuspid vegectomy and repair or pulmonary valve valvulectomy, as well as antibiotic therapy, during their in-hospital stay. They were analyzed in respect to gender, age, time elapsed from hospital admission to the surgery, time elapsed from hospital admission to hospital discharge, valve lesion, blood culture result, surgical treatment and mortality. Results: Infective valve endocarditis treated by heart surgery was more frequent in the third decade of life. Most of patients (81.2%) were males. The patients who died spent a shorter time from hospital admission to the surgery than the patients who survived. The aortic valve was affected in 65% of cases. Positivity blood cultures were seen in 42% and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 52.4% of these cases. Valve replacement was necessary in 93.7% of cases. The in-hospital mortality rate was 14.1% which was not influenced by the age of the patient or the blood culture result. Conclusion: Infective valve endocarditis treated by heart surgery was more frequent in men and in the third decade of life. It mostly affected the aortic valve. Staphylococcus aureus was the more common pathogen found. Almost all the patients needed replacement of the infected valve and the in-hospital mortality rate was 14.1%.
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