Conforto térmico de bovinos leiteiros confinados em clima subtropical e mediterrâneo pela análise de parâmetros fisiológicos utilizando a teoria dos conjuntos fuzzy AMENDOLA et al. (2005b). The use of this tool allowed the establishment of thermal comfort parameters for total confined Holsteins cows.
RESUMO:O Brasil é um importante país exportador de carne de frango, e grande parte de seu destino são países com restrições específicas de alojamento, relacionadas ao bem-estar das aves. Um dos poluentes aéreos freqüentemente encontrados em altas concentrações nos aviários, principalmente em ambientes fechados, é a amônia. Existem evidências de que o bem-estar de frangos de corte pode ser comprometido pela exposição contínua a esse poluente dentro dos galpões de alojamento. Este trabalho visou a estimar o bem-estar para frangos de corte alojados, a partir de atributos específicos do ambiente térmico e da densidade de aves, em função da concentração de amônia e luminosidade no ambiente de alojamento, utilizando a Teoria dos Conjuntos Fuzzy. Os resultados mostraram que o melhor valor de bem-estar (0,89 na escala: 0-1), aproximadamente 90% do ideal, foi encontrado nas condições que associam o ambiente térmico ideal, com densidade entre 13-15 aves m -2 , com valores de concentração de amônia no ambiente abaixo de 5 ppm, e com luminosidade ambiente próxima de 1 lx. Utilizando o método preditivo, foi possível estimar o bem-estar de frangos de corte com relação à concentração de amônia no galpão e a sua luminosidade. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: qualidade de ar, ambiente de alojamento, lógica Fuzzy. ESTIMATING BROILER WELFARE AS FUNCTION OF AMMONIA CONCENTRATION AND LIGHT LEVEL INSIDE HOUSINGABSTRACT: Brazil is an important poultry meat export country, and large parts of its destination are countries with specific rearing restrictions related to broiler's welfare. One of the aerial pollutants mostly found in high concentrations in closed poultry housing environment is ammonia. There are evidences that broilers welfare may be compromised by the continuous exposition to this pollutant in rearing housing. This research aimed to estimate broilers welfare reared under specific thermal environmental attributes and bird's density, as function of the ammonia concentration and light intensity inside the housing environment using the Fuzzy Theory. Results showed that the best welfare value (0.89 in the scale: 0-1) approximately 90% of the ideal was found in the conditions that associated the ideal thermal environment, with bird's density between 13-15 birds m -2 , with values of the ammonia concentration in the environment below 5 ppm, and light intensity near 1 lx. Using the predictive method it was possible to estimate broilers welfare with relation to the ammonia concentration and light intensity in the housing.
RESUMO:A qualidade do ar em ambientes de produção animal vem sendo referenciada como ponto de interesse em estudos de sistema de controle ambiental, focando tanto a saúde dos animais que vivem em total confinamento, quanto a dos trabalhadores. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a variação da qualidade da ambiência aérea em dois tipos de galpões criatórios de frangos de corte: convencional (G c ) e tipo túnel (G t ). Os valores de poeira total, em ambos os galpões, ofereceram condições adequadas às aves; entretanto, as concentrações de poeira respirável no ar estiveram acima do limite recomendado para humanos. A concentração de monóxido de carbono, na fase de aquecimento, esteve acima dos 10 ppm máximos recomendados, no período avaliado, sendo superior na época de frio no galpão G t (30 ppm), comparada ao galpão G c (18 ppm). Os picos de concentração de amônia no ar estiveram acima dos 20 ppm máximos recomendados às aves a partir do 20 o dia de produção, em ambos os galpões, e na média diária, por período superior no galpão G t (4h30), quando comparado ao G c (2h45). Foram encontrados apenas traços de óxido nítrico e metano, enquanto a concentração de gás carbônico, avaliada em condições diurnas, atendeu aos limites máximos permitidos, tanto para aves quanto para o trabalhador.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: avicultura de corte, poluentes aéreos, saúde do trabalhador. AERIAL ENVIRONMENT IN BROILER HOUSING: DUST AND GASESABSTRACT: Air quality in animal production environment has been refereed as an interesting point for studies in environmental control systems with the focus both to the animal health which live in total confinement, as to the workers. The objective of this research was to determine the variation on the aerial environmental quality in two types of broiler housing: conventional (G c ) and tunnel type (G t ). The total dust values in both houses offered adequate rearing conditions to the birds; however, regarding the inhale dust in the air was above the limits recommended for humans. Carbon monoxide concentration in the heating phase during the evaluated period was above the 10 ppm maximum recommended, and it was higher during the cold season in G t house (30 ppm) when compared to the G c house (18 ppm). Ammonia concentration peaks in the air were above the 20 ppm recommended from the 20 th day of production in both houses and in daily average, for a period higher in G t (4h30) when compared to G t (2h45). Only traces of nitrate oxide and methane were found while carbonic dioxide gas concentration evaluated during daytime met the limits allowed for both birds and labor.KEYWORDS: broiler production, aerial pollutant, worker health. INTRODUÇÃOA qualidade do ar em ambientes de produção animal vem sendo referenciada como ponto de interesse em estudos de sistema de controle ambiental, focando tanto a saúde dos animais que vivem em total confinamento, quanto a dos trabalhadores que permanecem de 4 a 8 horas por dia nesse ambiente de trabalho. Dentro do contexto da avicultura moderna, pesquisas mostram a influência dire...
Heat waves usually result in losses of animal production since they are exposed to thermal stress inducing an increase in mortality and consequent economical losses. Animal science and meteorological databases from the last years contain enough data in the poultry production business to allow the modeling of mortality losses due to heat wave incidence. This research analyzes a database of broiler production associated to climatic data, using data mining techniques such as attribute selection and data classification (decision tree) to model the impact of heat wave incidence on broiler mortality. The temperature and humidity index (THI) was used for screening environmental data. The data mining techniques allowed the development of three comprehensible models for estimating specifically high mortality during broiler production. Two models yielded a classification accuracy of 89.3% by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Wrapper feature selection approaches. Both models obtained a class precision of 0.83 for classifying high mortality. When the feature selection was made by the domain experts, the model accuracy reached 85.7%, while the class precision of high mortality was 0.76. Meteorological data and the calculated THI from meteorological stations were helpful to select the range of harmful environmental conditions for broilers 29 and 42 days old. The data mining techniques were useful for building animal production models.
Various degrees of lameness were compared among male broilers ranging in age from 28 to 49 d that had been randomly selected from a commercial farm. Gait scores were given to the broilers while they walked on a force measurement platform system, and the force exerted by their feet was measured and compared in 2 distinct conditions: with and without administration of an analgesic. Postmortem femoral degenerative lesions were observed, and the femur strength in response to a compression load was measured and compared. Results showed a difference in the peak vertical forces of the right and left feet before and after medication. The researchers also found that as BW increased, the locomotion ability of broilers tended to decrease. After birds received the analgesic, the peak vertical force increased among the more severely lame broilers at 35 to 49 d of age and their walking speed was decreased, indicating that they might have felt pain during locomotion. No difference was found between the femur (right and left) strength in response to a compression load; however, the results showed that femurs of 28-d-old birds were less resistant to compression (P < 0.05) than those of older broilers. The foot force platform was a useful tool for assessing the walking ability of broilers.
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