The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitological contamination of vegetables to be consumed raw and commercialized in Niterói and Rio de Janeiro cities. We studied 128 samples of vegetables--lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale)--from supermarkets, greengrocer shops and self-service restaurants. Only 6.2% of the samples were positive for parasitic structures with morphological aspects similar to those of animal parasites. We detected acarids, acarid eggs, insects, nematode larvae and ciliated protozoa in most of the samples (96.1%), including those from restaurants. This high percentage suggests a risk of human infection since parasite structures capable of infecting man may exist in association with these agents.
Foram estudadas 131 amostras de fezes de gatos de comportamento domiciliado e errante da Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, obtendo-se uma positividade de 63,4% das amostras, com maior ocorrência no grupo de animais errantes. Foi observado predomínio de parasitismo por Ancylostoma sp (43,5%), Toxocara sp (19,1%) e Cystoisospora sp (43,5%) em ambos os grupos. Também foram encontrados ovos de Uncinaria sp (1,5%), Toxascaris leonina (7,6%), cistos de Giardia sp (6,1%) e esporocistos de Sarcocystis sp (0,8%). A alta prevalência de enteroparasitas na amostra estudada ressalta a importância de um maior controle parasitológico nesses animais, para proteção da saúde animal e humana.
From 2012 to 2013 were surveyed gastrointestinal parasites from pig farms located in different municpaliyies in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Fecal samples from 790 pigs were collected from the rectum on 88 family farms and 702 farms with industrial production. The samples were subjected to Faust et al., Sheather, Ritchie, Lutz and direct examination faecal techniques. The estimated parasite prevalence was 93.1% in family farms and 59.1% in industrial farms. Balantidium coli, coccidia and Entamoeba sp. were the parasites with the highest frequencies, and the male and female reproductive categories and fatteners pigs the most infected (p<0.05). Trophozoites of B. coli were most evident in stool samples from semi-solid followed by solid and diarrheal consistencies. Strongyles eggs and Trichuris suis have been detected exclusively in family farms. Ascaris suum eggs and Strongyloides ransomi showed low frequency. The high degree of parasitism, especially protozoa, indicates the need to reassess the management of pigs in both types of production.
Resumo Foram estudados oito cães provenientes do Município de Maricá (RJ), com lesões sugestivas de leishmaniose tegumentar americana por métodos parasitológicos e sorológicos. Leishmania spp foi encontrada em seis cães através do cultivo in vitro. Anticorpos específicos foram detectados em seis animais pelo ELISA e em dois pela imunofluorescência indireta. Cinco isolados caninos analisados apresentaram zimodema similar a Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Sugere-se que cães clinicamente suspeitos sejam acompanhados periodicamente, na tentativa de confirmar o diagnóstico da leishmaniose tegumentar canina. Palavras-chaves: Cão. Leishmania. Diagnóstico.Abstract Eight dogs from Maricá Municipality (RJ), with suggestive lesion of american tegumentary leishmaniasis were studied by parasitological and serological methods. Leishmania spp was found in six dogs by in vitro cultivation. Specific antibodies were detected in six dogs by ELISA and in two by indirect immunofluorescence. Five canine isolates were found to belong to the same zymodeme as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. The authors suggest that clinically suspect dogs should be followed-up in an attempt to confirm the diagnostic of canine tegumentary leishmaniasis. Key-words: Dog. Leishmania. Diagnosis. Apesar de ser uma zoonose originalmente silvestre, a LTA causada pela Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis tem sido descrita por diversos autores ocorrendo em ambientes domésticos, tendo sido aventada a possibilidade de que animais domésticos e peridomésticos, e em especial o cão, estariam funcionando como importantes fontes de infecção nesse locais 2 8 13 . Vários questionamentos ainda permanecem quanto ao verdadeiro papel do cão nessa nova adaptação do ciclo de transmissão 16 .Pouco também se conhece sobre os aspectos clínicos, parasitológicos e imunológicos do curso da infecção pela L. braziliensis em cães, sendo portanto, necessários mais estudos visando elucidar esses aspectos, que contribuirão não só para o diagnóstico precoce dos casos caninos bem como para o esclarecimento do papel dessa espécie animal na epidemiologia da LTA.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar casos de cães com lesão sugestiva de LTA provenientes do Município de Maricá (Rio de Janeiro), descrevendose a apresentação das lesões e correlacionando-as com os resultados parasitológicos e sorológicos.
Thirty samples of lettuces from self service restaurants of Niterói were analyzed to detect bacteriological and parasitological contamination. Sixteen samples presented fecal coliform, 16 mesophilic aerobic microorganisms greater than 10(7) UFC/g and 3 cysts of Entamoeba coli. These data suggest the need of better orientation for food handlers regarding the hygiene of processed vegetables.
This study aimed to investigate the species of felids that inhabit the Serra dos Órgãos National Park (Parnaso) and gastrointestinal parasites at various stages of their life cycles in the feces of these animals. Between 2013 and 2015, felid feces were collected from trails in Parnaso. The sampling points were georeferenced. A total of 82 fecal samples were processed, of which 79 were collected on the ground, two from captured felids and one from a necropsied animal. All samples underwent coproparasitological techniques. Samples collected from the environment underwent additional trichological analysis. Fur patterns corresponding to Leopardus guttulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii and Puma yagouaroundi were observed in 32 of the samples collected on the soil. High frequency of potentially parasitic evolving forms (88.6%) was observed in felid feces, particularly eggs of the family Diphyllobothriidae (68.6%). Besides, were also detected, eggs of superfamily Ascaridoidea (42.9%), nematode larvae (28.6%), eggs of order Strongylida (28.6%), Capillaria sp. (8.6%), Trichuris sp. (8.6%), eggs of order Spirurida (2.9%), unsporulated coccidian oocysts (8.6%) and Eimeria sp. (2.9%). Felid feces presented higher frequency of polyparasitism (60%) than monoparasitism (28.6%).
Heartworm disease is a health problem for dogs and cats, especially in tropical and subtropical coastal regions of the world. Some studies have compared the efficacy of the diagnostic techniques used to detect this parasitosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare parasitological optical microscopy (POM), serological and molecular techniques for diagnosing canine heartworm infection. Samples were collected between July 2015 and April 2016 from 103 dogs in Cabo Frio, RJ, Brazil. The wet fresh blood, thick smears, thin smears and modified Knott’s test were used to detect microfilariae. ELISA (Snap™ 4Dx ® IDEXX) was used to detect antigens and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect DNA and enable sequencing for species differentiation and confirmation. 19.4% of samples were positive according to microscopy. Through PCR, 15.5% of the total were positive. Using ELISA, the positivity rate was 29.1%. Occult heartworm infection was detected in 11.6% of the samples. ELISA sensitivity was shown to be higher than PCR or microscopy (P = 0.001). Sequencing of samples confirmed the presence of Dirofilaria immitis and Acanthocheilonema reconditum . ELISA was more effective for serological diagnosis canine heartworm and should be used in clinical and epidemiological studies.
Knowledge on the circulation of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) and perception by the local population are highly relevant for developing a control program, since they mobilize the community for effective health measures. This work aimed to orient primary school teachers and pupils (grades 1 through 4) in the public school system in Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, on ATL, using talks, posters, and leaflets with an interactive approach. Talks were given in seven municipal schools, and activities were held with 1,314 pupils and 56 teachers. Leaflets were distributed to the pupils with activities to help consolidate the content. Two months later one school was chosen for post-evaluation. Of the 213 pupils who had attended the talk, 198 answered a questionnaire, of whom 178 (89.9%) could remember the disease and 125 (63.1%) provided correct answers on transmission. Thus, informed children and teachers can function as information disseminators in health within their community and are therefore capable of contributing to control of endemic diseases.
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