Despite the great anthropogenic interference on urban streams, information is still scarce about the genetic variability and structure of native fish populations inhabiting such streams. In the present study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to analyze genetic variability and structure of populations assigned to the Neotropical fish species Astyanax scabripinnis from an urban stream located in Londrina, Parana´State, southern Brazil. Thirty individuals of this species were collected from three sites throughout the upper Cambe´stream. A total of 10 primers amplified 159 loci, of which 128 (80.5%) were polymorphic. Each of the three populations showed very similar proportions of polymorphic loci, which ranged from 63.5 to 64.8%. Unbiased genetic distances varied from 0.0612 to 0.0646. Theta p -test values indicated moderate to high genetic differentiation among individuals from different localities. The number of migrants varied from 1.34 to 1.46, suggesting a low gene flow between populations. The genetic similarity among all individuals studied ranged from 0.424 to 0.848. The results suggest that populations of A. scabripinnis in Cambe´stream are undergoing genetic differentiation.
The focus of this work was to survey the ichthyofauna of the Penacho stream, a tributary of the Laranjinha River, northeastern Paraná State, in an area of the Upper Paraná River basin still devoid of ichthyofaunal studies. In general, the banks of the Penacho Stream are predominantly characterized by pasture or agricultural activities and may exhibit little riparian vegetation in few stretches. Fishes were collected at eight different locations, from its headwaters to its mouth, between February 2009 to March 2010. A total of seven orders, twelve families and thirty-three species, three of which not native to the basin, were reported. The fish species captured along the Penacho stream are those that still manage to stay in those environments, even in changed conditions. However, to better understand the effects of degradation on fish diversity, it is necessary to monitor it along time.
Applying an integrated approach using the Comet, micronucleus (MN), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays, occurrence of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) and the liver activity of antioxidants enzymes (catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) was carried out to evaluate the effects of acute (6, 24, and 96 h) and subchronic (15 days) exposures to aluminum on fish Prochilodus lineatus. The Comet assay showed that fish erythrocytes exhibited significantly higher DNA damage after 6 and 96 h of Al exposure. MN frequencies were very low and did not increase significantly after Al exposures, while ENAs frequency increased significantly after all exposure periods. RAPD profiles obtained with DNA from fish fins collected before the toxicity tests were compared to the profiles with DNA from gills and liver of the same fish sampled after Al exposures. Alterations in RAPD profiles, including appearance and disappearance of bands, after 6 h, 24 h, and 15 days of Al exposure were detected. Fish exposed to Al for 6 and 24 h also showed significant increases in GST and catalase activities. These results indicated that Al exposure was genotoxic to P. lineatus, inducing DNA damage in peripheral erythrocytes. The induction of antioxidant enzymes might be an indication that Al causes oxidative damage to DNA, while the very low frequency of MN suggests that Al does not produce clastogenic or aneugenic effects. Genotoxic effects after 15 days of Al exposure was revealed only by RAPD, showing that this assay represents a sensitive method to detect genotoxic damage, occasionally not detected by other genotoxic tests used in toxicological genetics studies.
In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were applied to analyze the genetic diversity of samples of the Neotropical catfish Hypostomus ancistroides, collected from four sites (S1, S2, S3 and S4) along an urban stream in Southern Brazil. The 11 primers used in RAPD analysis amplified 147 loci, 76 (51.7%) of which were polymorphic. The proportions of polymorphic loci observed in the four samples were: 29.93% (S1), 31.97% (S2), 23.81% (S3) and 38.77% (S4). The average heterozygosity within sampling localities ranged from 0.1230 to 0.1526 and unbiased genetic distances ranged from 0.0253 to 0.0445. AMOVA partitioned 90.85% of the total variation within samples and 9.15% among samples. Excepting for the sample pair S1-S2 (φ ST = 0.02784; p > 0.05), all others pairwise φ ST values were significantly greater than zero, indicating moderate genetic differentiation among catfish samples from four localities. The relative low levels of genetic variation detected in all groups studied could be related to different factors, including the sedentary habit of these fish, which can be eroding the genetic variation of H. ancistroides from each locality.
Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the Neotropical cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis and tested on 30 individuals belonging to a single population. Among the 14 loci described, four showed potential presence of null alleles, inferred from the excess of homozygous genotypes, and three of these loci showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Fifty-nine different alleles were detected (ranging from two to eight alleles per locus), with estimates of observed and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0·167 to 0·700 and from 0·269 to 0·825. Cross-amplification of primers was successful in five other cichlid species.
ABSTRACT. Streams are very important environments for Neotropical freshwater fish fauna, and possess a high number of species. These small drainages are also highlighted by their intrinsic biological and physicochemical features; however, knowledge on the genetic distribution of fish in these drainages is limited. Therefore, in the present study, RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and microsatellite markers were used to analyze population differentiation and gene flow of Astyanax altiparanae and Geophagus brasiliensis from three sites (high, medium, and low) throughout the Penacho stream (about 32 km long), which is a Neotropical stream. Both markers revealed higher levels of genetic diversity levels for A. altiparanae ( P : 90.05; H S : 0.350) compared to G. brasiliensis ( P : 30.43; H S : 0.118), which may be related to the particular biology of each species. AMOVA revealed significant genetic variation among populations of each species. All pairwise Ф ST values were significant, ranging from 0.020 to 0.056 for A. altiparanae samples, and from 0.065 to 0.190 for G. brasiliensis samples. Bayesian clustering analysis corroborated these results and revealed clusters of both A. altiparanae (two based on RAPD data) and G. brasiliensis (two based on RAPD data and three on microsatellite data). Gene flow estimates showed that there were similar rates of migration among A. altiparanae samples and low rates of migration among some G. brasiliensis samples. These results suggest patterns of fine-scale genetic structure for both species in the Penacho stream. This information may enhance knowledge of Neotropical streams and may be useful for future management and conservation activities.
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