-The aim of this work was to study communities of euglossine bees in three fragments of semideciduous forest with different sizes (8.5 ha, 86 ha and 2280 ha), in Northern Paraná State (Brazil). From November 2001 through April 2002 males of euglossine bees were sampled using chemical baits. A total of 245 males from four genera and seven species visited the baits. In the largest fragment were sampled 152 males of 6 species, in the medium, 45 males of five species and, in the smallest, 48 males of seven species. The diversity (H') and species evenness (J') varied from 1.21 to 1.42 and from 0.62 to 0.86, respectively. A change in abundance order of species was verified in the different areas. Apparently, a reduction on fragment size affected negatively the frequency of Eufriesea violacea Blanchard, the most common species (43.4%) in the largest fragment and the fourth (8.3%) in the smallest one. The results suggest the need of maintenance of large forest areas to keep viable populations of this and probably other species of euglossine bees.
Quantifying and classifying ichthyoplankton is one of the most effective ways of monitoring the recruitment process in fishes. However, correctly identifying the fish based on morphological characters is extremely difficult, especially in the early stages of development. We examined ichthyoplankton from tributaries and reservoirs along the middle stretch of the Paranapanema River, one of the areas most impacted by hydroelectric projects in the Neotropics. Matching DNA sequences of the COI gene (628-648 bp) allowed us to identify 99.25% of 536 samples of eggs (293) and larvae (243) subjected to BOLD-IDS similarity analysis with a species-level threshold of 1.3%. The results revealed 37 species in 27 genera, 15 families and four orders, some 23.8% of documented fish species in the Paranapanema River. Molecular identification meant that we could include data from egg samples that accounted for about 30% of the species richness observed. The results in this study confirm the efficacy of DNA barcoding in identifying Neotropical ichthyoplankton and show how the data produced provide valuable information for preparing plans for conserving and managing inland waters.
Deforestation has dramatically reduced the extent of Atlantic Forest cover in Brazil. Orchid bees are key pollinators in neotropical forest, and many species are sensitive to anthropogenic interference. In this sense understanding the matrix permeability for these bees is important for maintaining genetic diversity and pollination services. Our main objective was to assess whether the composition, abundance, and diversity of orchid bees in matrices differed from those in Atlantic forest. To do this we sampled orchid bees at 4-mo intervals from 2007 to 2009 in remnants of Atlantic Forest, and in the surrounding pasture and eucalyptus matrices. The abundance, richness, and diversity of orchid bees diminished significantly from the forest fragment toward the matrix points in the eucalyptus and pasture. Some common or intermediate species in the forest areas, such as Eulaema cingulata (F.) and Euglossa fimbriata Moure, respectively, become rare species in the matrices. Our results show that the orchid bee community is affected by the matrices surrounding the forest fragments. They also suggest that connections between forest fragments need to be improved using friendly matrices that can provide more favorable conditions for bees and increase their dispersal between fragments.
In this study, we compare orchid bee communities surveyed in four forest remnants of the Atlantic Forest and four reforested areas characterized by seasonal semi-deciduous forest vegetation in different successional stages (mature and secondary vegetation), located in southern Brazil. The sizes of forest remnants and reforested areas varied from 32.1 to 583.9 ha and from 11.3 to 33.3 ha, respectively. All reforested areas were located near one forest remnant. During samplings, totaling nine per study area, euglossine males were attracted to eight scent baits and captured with bait trap and entomological nets. Each forest remnant and its respective reforested area were sampled simultaneously by two collectors. We collected 435 males belonging to nine species of orchid bees distributed in four genera. The number of individuals and species did not differ significantly between different areas, except for a reforested area (size 33.3 ha), which was located far from its respective forest remnant. Our findings also revealed an apparent association between an orchid bee species (Euglossa annectans Dressler 1982) and the most preserved area surveyed in our study, suggesting that this bee is a potential indicator of good habitat quality in recuperating or preserved areas. Our results suggest that reforested habitats located near forest remnants have a higher probability of having reinstated their euglossine communities.
Edited by Fernando B Noll -UNESP Neotropical Entomology 38(5):610-615 (2009) ABSTRACT -Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard) is a very seasonal euglossine species, more frequently found in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil. A number of studies have revealed large variations in the abundance of males of this species present in Atlantic Forest remnants throughout both regions. In this paper, we report variations in the abundance of E. violacea males sampled in several forest patches of different sizes (ranging from 10 to 580 ha), and we propose that this species is possibly sensitive to the reduction in size of forest remnants. Surveys were carried out in nine forest remnants of Atlantic rainforest located in northern Paraná State, southern Brazil. Male euglossine bees were collected with an entomological net when visiting scent-baits, between 10:00 am and 1:00 pm, from October to December of 2001 and 2006. A total of 360 E. violacea males were captured in the nine forest fragments studied. The number of bees attracted to scent baits in each forest patch varied from zero to 261. A very high association (r = 0.993) was detected between the forest patch size and the visitation rate of E. violacea males at different sites, with the highest mean number of males visiting baits/sampling (43.5) being observed for bees from the largest forest remnant. Although alternative hypothesis should not be discharged for the decline in the abundance or absence of E. violacea in small forest patches, our results indicate that populations of this euglossine species need larger forest areas for existing.
Bee Diversity in Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth (Bignoniaceae): Importance for Pollination and Fruit Production ABSTRACT -Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth is an exotic plant in Brazil, commonly distributed in urban areas, which is considered an invasive species in crop and pasture areas. In this study, the floral biology and the behavior of bees in flowers of T. stans from three urban areas in southeastern Brazil were investigated. In all study sites, T. stans was an important food resource to the Apoidea to 48 species of bees. Centris tarsata Smith and Exomalopsis fulvofasciata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the effective pollinators more abundant, while Scaptotrigona depilis Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was the more frequent robber species. The most part of T. stans visitors (87.5%) exploited exclusively nectar, which varied in sugar concentration depending on the day period and flower phase. In all flower stages, higher averages of nectar concentration (26.4% to 32.7%) occurred from 10 am to 2 pm. The presence of osmophore in the petals and protandry were detected. In two urban areas the number of visitors varied significantly during the day. The greatest abundance of pollinators occurred when pollen availability was higher and flowers showed receptive stigma, which could be contributing to the reproductive success of T. stans. The results indicate that the production of fruits increased in plants that received a higher number of effective pollinators.KEY WORDS: Apidae, urban area, floral visitor, effective pollinator RESUMO -Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth é uma espécie vegetal introduzida no Brasil, comumente encontrada em áreas urbanas e considerada invasora de ambientes cultivados e áreas de pastagem. Neste trabalho foram estudados aspectos da biologia foral, diversidade e comportamento de coleta das abelhas em flores de T. stans em três áreas urbanas no Sudeste do Brasil. Nas três áreas, T. stans mostrou-se importante fonte de recursos alimentares utilizados 48 espécies de abelhas. Centris tarsata Smith e Exomalopsis fulvofasciata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foram os polinizadores efetivos mais abundantes e Scaptotrigona depilis Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae) a espécie pilhadora mais freqüente. A grande maioria (87,5%) dos visitantes de T. stans coletou exclusivamente néctar, recurso que variou em concentração durante o dia e nas diferentes fases da flor. Em todos os estágios florais, as maiores concentrações médias de néctar ocorreram entre 10:00h e 14:00h. Detectou-se a presença de osmóforos nas pétalas e protandria. Em duas áreas estudadas o número de visitantes variou significativamente durante o dia. A maior abundância de polinizadores ocorreu nos períodos de maior disponibilidade de pólen e estigmas receptivos, fato esse que pode ser determinante para o sucesso reprodutivo de T. stans. Os resultados indicam ainda maior produção de frutos em plantas que receberam o número maior de polinizadores efetivos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Apidae, área urbana, visitante floral, polinizador efetivo
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to analyze the genetic structure of Eufriesea violacea populations in three fragments (85.47, 832.58 and 2800 ha) of Atlantic rainforest located in the north of the Brazilian state of Paraná. A total of twelve primers produced 206 loci, of which 129 were polymorphic (95% criterion). The proportions of polymorphic loci in each population ranged from 57.28% to 59.2%, revealing very similar levels of genetic variability in the groups of bees from each fragment. Unbiased genetic distances between groups ranged from 0.0171 to 0.0284, the smallest genetic distance occurring between bees from the two larger fragments. These results suggest that the E. violacea populations from the three fragments have maintained themselves genetically similar to native populations of this species originally present in northern Paraná.
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