The focus of this work was to survey the ichthyofauna of the Penacho stream, a tributary of the Laranjinha River, northeastern Paraná State, in an area of the Upper Paraná River basin still devoid of ichthyofaunal studies. In general, the banks of the Penacho Stream are predominantly characterized by pasture or agricultural activities and may exhibit little riparian vegetation in few stretches. Fishes were collected at eight different locations, from its headwaters to its mouth, between February 2009 to March 2010. A total of seven orders, twelve families and thirty-three species, three of which not native to the basin, were reported. The fish species captured along the Penacho stream are those that still manage to stay in those environments, even in changed conditions. However, to better understand the effects of degradation on fish diversity, it is necessary to monitor it along time.
Several studies of small watersheds of in the Upper Paraná River basin are currently available. However, the number and extent of its tributary streams still pose a challenge to enhancing current knowledge of their ichthyofauna. This study aimed to survey the fish fauna of three streams of the Lower Paranapanema River basin, state of Paraná, Brazil (Capim, Tenente and Centenário streams). The sampling included 3,167 specimens belonging to five orders, 17 families and 56 species. The streams presented differences in species richness (Centenário Stream: 41 species; Tenente Stream: 33 species; Capim Stream: 30 species). Two species occurred at all collection sites (Astyanax bockmanni and Hypostomus ancistroides). Nine non-native species were recorded, four of them found exclusively in the Centenário Stream.
Abstract. Garcia DAZ, Vidotto-Magnoni AP, Costa ADA, Casimiro ACR, Jarduli LR, Ferraz JD, De Almeida FS, Orsi ML. 2019. Importance of the Congonhas River for the conservation of the fish fauna of the Upper Paraná basin, Brazil. Biodiversitas 20: 474-481. The Upper Paraná River basin is among the most fragmented watersheds in the world. The Congonhas River belongs to this drainage system, which has its mouth in the Capivara Reservoir and can be considered the largest tributary free-from-dam, becoming important for the maintenance of fish species richness. In order to know more about the species present in this tributary, we aimed to provide an inventory of fish fauna of the Congonhas River and reproductive strategies to determine whether the river is used by migratory species and whether there is a longitudinal variation in the fish assembly. These findings will provide subsidies to contribute to the implementation of policies to protect biodiversity. Samplings occurred in the upper, middle and lower stretches of the Congonhas River during four periods between 1991 and 2011. Fishes were captured using gill nets from 2 to 14 cm mesh sizes between opposite knots and cast nets, identified and categorized according to their reproductive strategies. A total of 4,640 individuals belonging to 63 species, of which 79.4% consisted of Characiformes and Siluriformes were captured. Furthermore, 14% of fish were long-distance migratory species (e.g., Piaractus mesopotamicus, Megaleporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, Pinirampus pirinampu, and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans). In addition, there was an increase in the fish species richness from upstream to downstream. Management actions such as prohibition of fishing, rehabilitation of riparian vegetation, and protection of the basin against dam construction will reduce anthropogenic impacts on the ecosystem. The Congonhas River highlights the importance of preserving lotic environmental for the conservation of migratory and non-migratory Neotropical fish diversity into a heavily modified watershed.
The aim of this study is to report the presence of a three non-native hybrid long-whiskered catfishes (family Pimelodidae) in the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Genetic analyses demonstrated that the three presumptive hybrids were a result of the crossbreeding of Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (central Amazonas River basin and Lower Paraná River) and Leiarius marmoratus (Amazonas, Essequibo and Orinoco rivers), producing a hybrid commonly known in Brazil as cachandiá. The potential threat to biodiversity, due to possible genetic contamination, competition and predation of wild stocks, of such artificially produced hybrid fishes is discussed.
Length-weight relationships were estimated for six fish species occurring in direct tributaries of the Lower Paranapanema River Basin. Data is described for the first time for five species and new measurements are provided for one species in the FishBase database. Studies of fish diversity are critical for species management and conservation, especially in this basin, which has suffered from many anthropical impacts.
Fish diversity loss is threatened by the construction of dams as they prevent the regular natural dispersal among populations. Thus, conservation of key riverine habitats for fish reproduction may be essential for the recruitment of new native species of fish. The present study aimed to identify key habitats for fish spawning and early development in the Paranapanema River basin, as well as to determine the taxonomic composition, reproductive and life-history strategy, and to report spatial distribution of eggs, larvae and juveniles. The importance of lagoons, tributaries, and sub-tributaries was evaluated in the Paranapanema River basin between October 2012 and March 2013. Eggs and larvae samples were collected at dawn and dusk with conical plankton nets (0.5 mm mesh size), whereas juveniles were captured during the day with seine and sieve (0.5 cm mesh size). A total of 547 eggs, 904 larvae and 1 228 juveniles were captured. We observed that 2 larvae and 288 juveniles of non-migratory species, parental care, and equilibrium life-history strategy, predominated in lagoons and tributaries. On the other hand, 13 larvae and 60 juveniles of short migratory distance, no parental care, and periodic life-history strategy predominated in sub-tributaries. The highest densities of eggs were recorded in tributaries and sub-tributaries (Tukey’s test, P = 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively), and the highest densities of larvae were recorded for lagoons and tributaries (P = 0.005 and P = 0.0001, respectively). Captures of eggs and larvae were higher at night; while the highest catches per unit effort of juveniles were recorded for tributaries and sub-tributaries. Fish species that adopt different life-history strategies can use diverse types of habitats during the early stages. Lagoons, tributaries and sub-tributaries of the Paranapanema River play different roles in the reproductive success of fish fauna in a heavily modified basin. The preservation of spawning and nursery areas trapped between reservoirs is necessary for Neotropical fish species recruitment and survival. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(2): 605-621. Epub 2018 June 01.
Fish introductions are common practices due to intentionally or unintentionally translocations of species between watersheds. Herein we report the spread of the non-native cichlid Laetacara araguaiae Ottoni & Costa 2009 in the Paranapanema River basin, southern Brazil. Native from the Araguaia River (Central Brazil), this species was probably introduced by releases made by aquarists. Its new area of occurrence is characterized as natural nursery and important for the life cycle of native fish. Due to its biological characteristics, the species has the ability to cause a negative impact on the aquatic biota through possible interactions, such as predation of eggs, larvae and juveniles of native fish, and spread of parasites.
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