Background Currently, Brazil is experiencing one of the fastest increasing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mortality rates worldwide, with a minimum of 158,000 confirmed deaths presently. The city of São Paulo is particularly vulnerable because it is the most populated city in Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to analyse COVID-19 mortality in a spatiotemporal context in São Paulo, with respect to socio-economic levels. Method We modelled the deaths using spatiotemporal architectures and Poisson probability distributions using a latent Gaussian Bayesian model approach. Results Both total deaths and confirmed deaths showed similar spatial patterns. Mortality was higher in men and increased with age. The most critical period regarding mortality occurred between the 20 th and 23 rd epidemiological weeks, followed by an apparent stabilisation of the epidemiological trend. The risk of death was greater in areas with the worst social conditions during the study period. However, this pattern was not uniform over time, since we identified a shift of high risk from the areas with the best socio-economic conditions to those with the worst conditions. Conclusions Our study corroborated the relationship between COVID-19 mortality and socio-economic conditions, revealing the importance of geographic screening in the integration of better actions to face the pandemic.
BackgroundBrazil is a tropical country that is largely covered by rainforests and other natural ecosystems, which provide ideal conditions for the existence of many arboviruses. However, few analyses have examined the associations between environmental factors and arboviral diseases. Thus, based on the hypothesis of correlation between environment and epidemiology, the proposals of this study were (1) to obtain the probability of occurrence of Oropouche, Mayaro, Saint Louis and Rocio fevers in Brazil based on environmental conditions corresponding to the periods of occurrence of the outbreaks; (2) to describe the macroclimatic scenario in Brazil in the last 50 years, evaluating if there was any detectable tendency to increase temperatures and (3) to model future expansion of those arboviruses in Brazil based on future temperature projections.Methodology/Principal findingsOur model assessed seven environmental factors (annual rainfall, annual temperature, elevation, seasonality of temperature, seasonality of precipitation, thermal amplitude, and daytime temperature variation) for their association with the occurrence of outbreaks in the last 50 years. Our results suggest that various environmental factors distinctly influence the distribution of each arbovirus, with temperature being the central determinant of disease distribution in all high-risk areas. These areas are subject to change, since the average temperature of some areas has increased significantly over the time.Conclusions/SignificanceThis is the first spatio-temporal study of the Oropouche, Mayaro, Saint Louis, and Rocio arboviruses, and our results indicate that they may become increasingly important public health problems in Brazil. Thus, next studies and control programs should include these diseases and also take into consideration key environmental elements.
Many areas across the Brazilian territory are exposed to ZIK or CHIK infection risks, which are related mainly to land use. The study findings offer valuable information to support time-sensitive public health decision-making at the local and national levels.
BackgroundMosquitoes, Plasmodium parasites, and humans live in sympatry in some extra-Amazonian regions of Brazil. Recent migrations of people from Amazonia and other countries to extra-Amazonian regions have led to many malaria outbreaks. Lack of relevant expertise among health professionals in non-endemic areas can lead to a neglect of the disease, which can be dangerous given its high fatality rate. Therefore, understanding the spatial and temporal epidemiology of malaria is essential for developing strategies for disease control and elimination. This study aimed to characterize imported (IMP) and autochthonous/introduced (AU/IN) cases in the extra-Amazonian regions and identify risk areas and groups.MethodsEpidemiological data collected between 2007 and 2014 were obtained from the Notifiable Diseases Information System of the Ministry of Health (SINAN) and from the Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS). High malaria risk areas were determined using the Local Indicator of Spatial Association. IMP and AU/IN malaria incidence rates were corrected by Local Empirical Bayesian rates.ResultsA total of 6092 malaria cases (IMP: 5416, 88.9 %; AU/IN: 676, 11.1 %) was recorded in the extra-Amazonian regions in 2007–2014. The highest numbers of IMP and AU/IN cases were registered in 2007 (n = 862) and 2010 (n = 149), respectively. IMP cases were more frequent than AU/IN cases in all states except for Espírito Santo. Piauí, Espírito Santo, and Paraná states had high incidences of AU/IN malaria. The majority of infections were by Plasmodium falciparum in northeast and southeast regions, while Plasmodium vivax was the predominant species in the south and mid-west showed cases of dual infection. AU/IN malaria cases were concentrated in the coastal region of Brazil, which contains the Atlantic Forest and hosts the Anopheles transmitters. Several malaria clusters were also associated with the Brazilian Pantanal biome and regions bordering the Amazonian biome.ConclusionMalaria is widespread outside the Amazonian region of Brazil, including in more urbanized and industrialized states. This fact is concerning because these highly populated areas retain favourable conditions for spreading of the parasites and vectors. Control measures for both IMP and AU/IN malaria are essential in these high-risk areas.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12936-015-0934-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
OBJETIVOS: Verificar o padrão espacial da mortalidade pelos cânceres de mama e do colo do útero, em áreas da atenção primária à saúde, levando em consideração as condições socioeconômicas. MÉTODOS: O estudo é ecológico, de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2016. A área de estudo é o município de São Paulo, Brasil, e suas 456 áreas de abrangência das unidades básicas de saúde. As informações sobre óbitos de mulheres com 20 anos ou mais de idade foram geocodificadas segundo endereço de residência. Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade, padronizadas por idade, e suavizadas pelo método bayesiano empírico local, além de agrupadas em três ou dois anos para reduzir a flutuação aleatória dos dados. Além disso, foram calculados os índices de Moran global e local bivariados, para verificar a existência de aglomeração espacial das taxas de mortalidade padronizadas com um domínio de condição socioeconômica, elaborado a partir do Índice Paulista de Vulnerabilidade Social. RESULTADOS: A taxa de sucesso da geocodificação foi de 98,9%. A mortalidade por câncer de mama, sem estratificação por tempo, apresentou um padrão com maiores taxas localizadas nas regiões centrais e com melhores condições socioeconômicas. Apresentou queda ao final do período e mudança de padrão espacial, com aumento da mortalidade nas regiões periféricas. Já a mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero manteve-se com as maiores taxas nas regiões periféricas e com piores condições socioeconômicas, apesar de apresentar redução ao longo do tempo. CONCLUSÃO: O padrão espacial da mortalidade pelos cânceres do estudo, ao longo do tempo, sugere associação com as melhores condições socioeconômicas do município, seja como proteção (colo) ou risco (mama). Esse conhecimento pode direcionar recursos para a prevenção e a promoção da saúde nos territórios.
Food environment and income act as determinants of diet, and consequently, of the consumption of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption, income, and street market density in adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil. Data from 521 adolescents (12 to 19 years) participating in the 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo were used. Buffers (500, 1000, and 1500 m) were drawn around the households and the street markets were counted in each zone. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption, income, and street market density. The main results showed that the presence of a street market in the zone closest to the households (500 m) was associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR: 1.73; CI 95% 1.01–3.00). Higher family income was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables for models of 500 m buffer (OR: 2.56; CI 95% 1.47–4.45), 1000 m (OR: 2.30; CI 95% 1.33–3.96), and 1500 m (OR: 2.32; CI 95% 1.35–4.00). These results support the implementation of public policies that jointly consider income and the availability of street markets or healthy food environments.
OBJECTIVE An ecological study describring the spatial characteristics of AIDS in São Paulo city between 2001 and 2010 according to the place of residence of reported cases in adults.METHODS The AIDS reported cases (28,146), grouped by sex, were geocodified (25,969) and linked with a census tract database (18,953). Case and population at risk data supplied spatial cluster identification and relative risk estimate by the scan method, using the discrete Poisson model. Incidence rate and proportional distribution allowed comparing people living in the high-risk clusters areas to other locations by age, race/ethnicity, schooling and transmission category.RESULTS The AIDS incidence rate decreased in both sexes except among young men and older people. The identification of spatial high-risk clusters showed that the decrease of AIDS did not occur in the same way in the city. Clusters located in the central area presented the highest AIDS incidence rates (245.7/100,000 men), especially among black women (RR = 7.9), men who have sex with men (66.2%) and injection drug users (10.7%) participation. In peripheral clusters, identified only in the female population, the epidemic can be related to the poverty of these women (22.5% low education level). Residents in the north and central-south areas of the city are generally black, with little schooling, and predominantly heterosexually infected.CONCLUSIONS The study of spatial clusters using a census tract helps to determine epidemiological patterns inside the city and in specific populations. Spatial stratification and key population epidemiological patterns were identified in four regions in São Paulo city.
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