Economic growth and increased urbanization pose a new risk for cancer development: the exposure of high numbers of people to ambient air pollution. Epidemiological evidence that links air pollution to mortality from lung cancer is robust. An ability to produce high-quality scientific research that addresses these risks and the ability of local health authorities to understand and respond to these risks are basic requirements to solve the conflict between economic development and the preservation of human health. However, this is currently far from being achieved. Thus, this Science and Society article addresses the possibilities of expanding scientific networking to increase awareness of the risk of lung cancer that is promoted by air pollution.
Access to public open space is important to increase leisure-time walking (LTW) in high-income countries, but there is little evidence in middle-income countries. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine the relationship between LTW and the presence of different public open spaces (parks, bike paths, and squares) and the mix of these recreational destinations near the homes of adults participating in the Sao Paulo Health Survey (n = 3145). LTW was evaluated by a questionnaire. We delineated buffers (500, 1000, and 1500 m) from the geographic coordinates of the adults’ residential addresses using a geographic information system. We used multilevel logistic regression taking account of clustering by census tracts and households, and with adjustment for social, demographics, and health characteristics. The main results showed that the presence of at least two recreational destinations within a 500-m buffer of participants’ homes were associated with an increased odds of LTW compared with no destinations present (OR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.09–2.55). No associations were found for destinations further away. These results support actions outlined in the new urban plan for Sao Paulo city and could be used to highlight the importance access to a mix of public open spaces to promote physical activity in megacities of middle-income countries.
Abstractobjectives To investigate spatial clusters and possible associations between relative risks of leprosy with socio-economic and environmental factors, taking into account diagnosed cases in children under 15 years old.methods An ecological study was conceived using data aggregated by municipality to identify possible spatial clusters of leprosy from 2005 to 2011. Relative risks were calculated accounting for the respective covariate gender. The second stage of the analysis consisted of verifying possible associations between the relative risks of leprosy as a dependent variable, and socio-economic and environmental variables as independent. This was performed using a multivariate regression analysis according to a previously defined conceptual framework.results Overall rates have decreased from 0.88/10 000 in 2005 to 0.52 in 2011. Spatial scan statistics identified 4 high-risk and 6 low-risk clusters. In the regression model, after allowing for spatial dependence, relative risks were associated with higher percentage of water bodies, higher Gini index, higher percentage of urban population, larger average number of dwellers by permanent residence and smaller percentage of residents born in Bahia.conclusions Although relative risks of leprosy in Bahia have been decreasing, they remain very high. The association between relative risks of leprosy and water bodies in the proposed geographic scale indicates that hypothesis linking M. leprae and humid environments cannot be discarded. Socioeconomic conditions such as inequality, a greater number of dwellers by residence and migration are derived from the urbanisation process carried out in this State. Precarious settlements and poor living conditions in the cities would favour the continuity of leprosy transmission.keywords leprosy, spatial scan statistic, environmental factors, socio-economic factors, spatial regression, Brazil
The correlations may reflect enhanced fungal growth after increase in soil water storage in the longer term and greater spore release with increase in absolute air humidity in the short term.
Tooth loss in middle-aged adults has important associations with social determinants of health. This study points to the importance of the social context as the main cause of oral health injuries suffered by most middle-aged Brazilian adults.
Background Currently, Brazil is experiencing one of the fastest increasing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mortality rates worldwide, with a minimum of 158,000 confirmed deaths presently. The city of São Paulo is particularly vulnerable because it is the most populated city in Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to analyse COVID-19 mortality in a spatiotemporal context in São Paulo, with respect to socio-economic levels. Method We modelled the deaths using spatiotemporal architectures and Poisson probability distributions using a latent Gaussian Bayesian model approach. Results Both total deaths and confirmed deaths showed similar spatial patterns. Mortality was higher in men and increased with age. The most critical period regarding mortality occurred between the 20 th and 23 rd epidemiological weeks, followed by an apparent stabilisation of the epidemiological trend. The risk of death was greater in areas with the worst social conditions during the study period. However, this pattern was not uniform over time, since we identified a shift of high risk from the areas with the best socio-economic conditions to those with the worst conditions. Conclusions Our study corroborated the relationship between COVID-19 mortality and socio-economic conditions, revealing the importance of geographic screening in the integration of better actions to face the pandemic.
BackgroundIdentifying clusters of acute paracoccidioidomycosis cases could potentially help in identifying the environmental factors that influence the incidence of this mycosis. However, unlike other endemic mycoses, there are no published reports of clusters of paracoccidioidomycosis.Methodology/Principal FindingsA retrospective cluster detection test was applied to verify if an excess of acute form (AF) paracoccidioidomycosis cases in time and/or space occurred in Botucatu, an endemic area in São Paulo State. The scan-test SaTScan v7.0.3 was set to find clusters for the maximum temporal period of 1 year. The temporal test indicated a significant cluster in 1985 (P<0.005). This cluster comprised 10 cases, although 2.19 were expected for this year in this area. Age and clinical presentation of these cases were typical of AF paracccidioidomycosis. The space-time test confirmed the temporal cluster in 1985 and showed the localities where the risk was higher in that year. The cluster suggests that some particularities took place in the antecedent years in those localities. Analysis of climate variables showed that soil water storage was atypically high in 1982/83 (∼2.11/2.5 SD above mean), and the absolute air humidity in 1984, the year preceding the cluster, was much higher than normal (∼1.6 SD above mean), conditions that may have favored, respectively, antecedent fungal growth in the soil and conidia liberation in 1984, the probable year of exposure. These climatic anomalies in this area was due to the 1982/83 El Niño event, the strongest in the last 50 years.Conclusions/SignificanceWe describe the first cluster of AF paracoccidioidomycosis, which was potentially linked to a climatic anomaly caused by the 1982/83 El Niño Southern Oscillation. This finding is important because it may help to clarify the conditions that favor Paracoccidioides brasiliensis survival and growth in the environment and that enhance human exposure, thus allowing the development of preventive measures.
To describe the nationwide impact of a restrictive law on over-the-counter sales of antimicrobial drugs, implemented in Brazil in November 2010.Approximately 75% of the population receives healthcare from the public health system and receives free-of-charge medication if prescribed. Total sales in private pharmacies as compared with other channels of sales of oral antibiotics were evaluated in this observational study before and after the law (2008–2012). Defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID) was used as standard unit.In private pharmacies the effect of the restrictive law was statistically significant (P < 0.001) with an estimated decrease in DDD/TID of 1.87 (s.e. = 0.18). In addition, the trend of DDD/TID before the restrictive law was greater than after the intervention (P < 0.001). Before November 2010, the slope for the trend line was estimated as 0.08 (s.e. = 0.01) whereas after the law, the estimated slope was 0.03 (s.e. = 0.01). As for the nonprivate channels, no difference in sales was observed (P = 0.643). The impact in the South and Southeast (more developed) regions was higher than in the North, Northeast, and Mid-West. The state capitals had a 19% decrease, compared with 0.8% increase in the rest of the states.Before the law, the sales of antimicrobial drugs were steadily increasing. From November 2010, with the restrictive law, there was an abrupt drop in sales followed by an increase albeit at a significantly lower rate. The impact was higher in regions with better socio-economic status.
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