The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses ('HoBi'-like pestiviruses) were identified in batches of contaminated foetal calf serum and in naturally infected cattle with and without clinical symptoms. Here, we describe the first report of a mucosal disease-like clinical presentation (MD) associated with a 'HoBi'-like pestivirus occurring in a cattle herd. The outbreak was investigated using immunohistochemistry, antibody detection, viral isolation and RT-PCR. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 5'NCR, N(pro) and E2 regions of the RT-PCR positive samples showed that four different 'HoBi'-like strains were circulating in the herd. The main clinical signs and lesions were observed in the respiratory and digestive systems, but skin lesions and corneal opacity were also observed. MD characteristic lesions and a pestivirus with cytopathic biotype were detected in one calf. The present study is the first report of a MD like presentation associated with natural infection with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus. This report describes the clinical signs and provides a pathologic framework of an outbreak associated with at least two different 'HoBi'-like strains. Based on these observations, it appears that these atypical pestiviruses are most likely underdiagnosed in Brazilian cattle.
Pestivirus infections in ruminants result in significant economic losses worldwide. The aetiological agents are three species from the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, including bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2, border disease virus (BDV), and an atypical pestivirus named HoBi-like pestivirus. In this study, eighty-nine pestivirus isolates that were collected in Brazil between 1995 and 2014 and that originated from either cattle, fetal bovine serum (FBS) or as cell culture contaminants were genotyped based on a comparison of gene sequences from their 5' untranslated regions (5'UTR), N-terminal autoprotease (N ) and envelope glycoprotein 2 (E2). Of these isolates, 53.9% of the sequences were genotyped as BVDV-1, 33.7% as BVDV-2 and 12.4% as HoBi-like pestivirus. The prevalence of subgenotypes within the species was as follows: BVDV-1a (35.9%), BVDV-2b (31.4%), BVDV-1b (10.1%), BVDV-1d (6.7%), BVDV-2c (2.2%) and BVDV-1e (1.1%). BVDV-2c and BVDV-1e were detected for the first time in Brazil. This study revealed extensive genetic diversity among Brazilian pestivirus isolates, and the combination of pestiviruses that was detected is unique to Brazil. This information may serve as a foundation for designing and evaluating diagnostic tools and in the development of more effective vaccines; therefore, it may potentially contribute to pestivirus control and eradication.
Ruminant pestiviruses can infect cattle populations worldwide and cause significant economic losses due to their impact on productivity and health. Knowledge of pestivirus diversity is important for control programs and vaccine development and for determining probable sources of infection. In this paper, we describe a search for ruminant pestiviruses with RT-PCR in sera of 9078 calves from 6 to 12 months of age. The calves were first analyzed in pools and then analyzed individually. Thirty-three RT-PCR positive animals were detected (0.36%) from 6.9% (24) of the 346 herds. The sequencing analysis of the 5' non-coding region and N terminal autoprotease showed the presence of BVDV-1a (15 isolates), -1b (3), -1d (1) and -2b (14), with a higher frequency (42.4%) of BVDV-2 in comparison with other countries. The presence of sheep was significantly associated with BVDV infection. Our results also suggested that a BVDV control program based only on the investigation of cattle would not be successful, especially in regions with farms harboring multiple animal species. This study may also serve as a reference for future control programs in Southern Brazil because it reports the prevalence of cattle with active infections and the genetic background of the circulating strains.
Summary Recently, a putative new pestivirus species, provisionally named as Atypical Porcine Pestivirus (APPV), was associated with the congenital tremor in piglets in North America and consequently in Europe and Asia. The present research aimed to describe the detection and characterization of APPV employing NS5B gene partial sequencing, gross pathology and histologic examination of piglets displaying congenital tremor from two different farms of Southern Brazil. No gross lesions were observed, and the histological findings revealed moderate vacuolization of the white matter of the cerebellum. RT‐PCR followed by DNA sequencing and a phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of APPV in samples from the two farms, which the samples were distinct in nature. Phylogenetic reconstruction reinforced the high genetic variability within the APPVs previously reported. This is the first report of APPV in South America suggesting that this new group of viruses may be widespread in swine herds in other countries as it is in Brazil.
Summary The ruminant pestiviral species BVDV‐1, BVDV‐2 and BDV, along with the putative species HoBi‐like, may cause substantial economic losses in cattle, sheep and goats. Brazil's large size, variable biomes and wide range of ruminant animal production within different geographic regions suggest that the presence and prevalence of ruminant pestivirus may differ by regions within Brazil. This study investigated the genetic diversity of ruminant pestiviruses and determined the frequency of active infections within two states of the Northeast Region of Brazil, Maranhão and Rio Grande do Norte. Serum samples from 16,621 cattle and 2,672 small ruminants from 569 different herds residing in this region were tested by RT‐PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Seventeen positive cattle were detected (0.1%) from fifteen different herds (2.64%). All isolates were classified as HoBi‐like pestiviruses based on phylogenetic analysis. All small ruminant samples tested negative. The findings presented herein suggest that the Northeast Region of Brazil has a uniquely high prevalence of HoBi‐like viruses. The increasing reports of HoBi‐like viruses detected in cattle in the field suggest that natural infection with these viruses may be more widespread than previously thought. The identification of HoBi‐like viruses as the most prevalent type of ruminant pestivirus circulating in the Northeast Region of Brazil indicates the need for both continued monitoring and determination of the extent of economic losses associated with HoBi‐like virus infections. In addition, it must be taken into account in the choice of diagnostic tests and in vaccine formulations.
Viruses from the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae have a non-segmented, single-stranded RNA genome and can cause diseases in animals from the order Artiodactyla. Homologous recombination is rarely reported in this virus family. To detect possible recombination events, all complete pestivirus genomes that are available in GenBank were screened using distinct algorithms to detect genetic conversions and incongruent phylogenies. Three putative recombinant viruses derived from recombination from different pestivirus subtypes/genogroups were detected: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) strain 3156, BVDV-2 strain JZ05-1 and Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain IND/UK/LAL-290. The present study demonstrated that the pestivirus classification cannot be based only on the analysis of one fragment of the genome because genetic conversions can lead to errors. The designation of the recombinant forms (RF) provides a more informative structure for the nomenclature of the genetic variant. The present work reinforces that homologous recombination occurs in pestivirus populations under natural replication and describes the first evidence of recombination in BVDV-2.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs to the Pestivirus genus, which is further divided into subgenotypes (1a-1u and 2a-c). When persistent infection occurs, the calf will be immunotolerant to BVDV and possibly develop mucosal disease. This study describes an outbreak of BVDV-1d-induced mucosal disease lacking intestinal lesions. Eleven calves presented with anorexia, sialorrhea, lameness, recumbency, and death. Three calves were necropsied, showing ulceration of the interdigital skin and the oral and nasal mucosa; linear ulcers in the tongue, esophagus, and rumen; and rounded ulcers in the abomasum. Microscopically, mucosa and skin had superficial necrosis, with single-cell necrosis and vacuolation in epithelial cells, and severe parakeratosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed BVDV antigen in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in skin and mucosa. All 11 dead calves were positive upon reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Pestivirus along with another 11 live calves from the herd, which were positive again by RT-PCR and IHC after a 4-week interval. Sequencing of the 5' untranslated region and N-terminal protease showed that viruses from these 22 calves were homologous and of subgenotype BVDV-1d. Cytopathic BVDV was isolated from 8 of 11 dead calves, but only noncytopathic BVDV was isolated from the 11 live animals. The findings indicate that this was an outbreak of mucosal disease caused by BVDV-1d, with high morbidity, and lesions restricted to the upper alimentary system and skin and absent from intestine. Thus, the epidemiological and pathological features in this form of mucosal disease may be similar to vesicular diseases, including foot and mouth disease.
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