Understanding genetics and the gene interactions involved in the expression of certain characteristics becomes a determining factor for better exploration of its use. The development of breeding programs that combine one or more desirable trait into a single cultivar is directly impacted by this lack of knowledge of the genetic bases involved. The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters involved in pigment expression and agronomic characteristics in lettuce. Parental evaluations of lettuce, P1 (green) and P2 (purple) parental generations, the segregating generations F1 and F2, and the backcrosses Bc1 and Bc2 originating from the UFU-Crespa199#1#1 x UFU-Albina#2 crossing were evaluated. The chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents, number of leaves and plant diameter were evaluated. The study was conducted by testing all generations and the estimates obtained by averages and variances. Indications of polygenic or oligogenic inheritance were verified by the characteristic number of leaves, plant diameter, and anthocyanin content. The complete and additive-dominant models satisfactorily explained the performance of the variables, except the anthocyanin content.
Lettuce is the most-consumed leafy vegetable in Brazil due to its ease of preparation, nutritional quality, and affordability. Despite these benefits, there are few cultivars of crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa) that possess agronomic potential, high carotenoid content and resistance to nematodes. Therefore, we evaluated the agronomic potential of crisphead lettuce genotypes that are resistant to the root-knot nematode. The experiment was conducted at the Vegetable Experiment Station of the Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), Monte Carmelo Campus. The trial was set up in a randomized block design with 49 treatments (43 genotypes obtained from crosses between Uberlandia 10000 and Belissima and six commercial cultivars) and three replications. After preparing the beds and before transplanting the seedlings, 11 simple samples were taken from each of the three experimental blocks to confirm the presence of nematodes within the experimental area. The following variables were determined 48 days after transplanting: chlorophyll content, leaf temperature, plant diameter, number of leaves per plant, fresh mass and incidence of root gall. The data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an F-test and the means were compared by the Scott-Knott test. Genetic diversity was represented by a dendrogram that was obtained using the hierarchical method of UPGMA and the optimization method of Tocher. We found genetic divergence and agronomic potential among the evaluated genotypes. Specifically, 199#1#1-E, 199#2#1-E, 199#2#2-E, 199#3#1-E, 199#6#1-E and 75#2#2-E presented good agronomic potential, were rich in carotenoids and showed resistance to the root-knot nematode.
Vegetables with high carotenoids content can help to prevent many diseases. Lettuce is one of the most consumed vegetables all over the world that present potential for biofortification investment. However, there are few genotypes of lettuce biofortificated on the market and for direct use in plant breeding. Evaluate new lettuce genotypes that are rich in carotenoids are essential in order to know the commercial potential and their usefulness as possible parents in breeding programs. Therefore, the experiment aimed to evaluate the agronomic potential and genetic dissimilarity between lettuce genotypes with different levels of carotenoids. It was conducted in a randomized block design, with 83 treatments and two replications. During the course of the trial, were evaluated quantitative characters: leaf chlorophyll content (a, b and total), canopy diameter and number of leaves; and qualitative characters: size, color and shape of the leaves. The genetic diversity was obtained by multivariate analyzes using the sum of quantitative and qualitative data and, after that, using different grouping methods (UPGMA and Tocher). The genotypes showed genetic dissimilarity and agronomic potential for different lettuce segments and high carotenoids content. Among the evaluated characters, total chlorophyll content represented the main contribution for genetic variability. There was no coherence between the hierarchical method of UPGMA and the optimization method of Tocher when used for determinate the genetic diversity between lettuce genotypes with different levels of carotenoids.
The growing of Piper aduncum for essential oil extraction has increased, but there is a lack of basic information about its management and cultivation, which allows the productivity and quality of the oil, in order to attend the market demands. This study aimed to evaluate the relation between the production of essential oils from P. aduncum and soil water pressure heads (20 kPa, 40 kPa, 60 kPa, 100 kPa and non-irrigated). The assessment comprised the quantification of idioblasts and the production of essential oil extracted from leaves of cultivated plants. The variation in the soil water pressure head alters the amount of idioblasts in P. aduncum leaves, with impacts on the essential oil production. A soil water pressure head range of 20-60 kPa is sufficient for this species to express the highest amount of idioblasts and the highest level of essential oil production. The species adapts itself to different water availability conditions in the soil. Under stress conditions, due to water deficit or excess, the production of essential oil is reduced.
Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes plantas de cobertura sobre as características agronômicas e produtividade da cultura da soja sob sistemas de cultivo Plantio Direto e Convencional. O experimento foi realizado em área experimental no município de Monte Carmelo-MG, nos anos agrícolas 2016/2017 e 2018/2019, utilizando delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema de faixas. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por seis espécies de plantas para cobertura de solo (2016/2017 foi semeado crotalária, feijão guandu, lab lab, milheto, sorgo e pousio e 2018/2019 foram crotalária, nabo forrageiro, feijão guandu, milheto, lab lab e pousio) e por dois sistemas de cultivo (plantio direto e plantio convencional). A cultivar de soja utilizada em 2016/2017 foi a SYN 1562 IPRO*(RR) e em 2018/2019 a NS 7667 (Ipro, Nidera). Nas cultivares de soja foram avaliadas as seguintes características agronômicas: altura inicial das plantas, altura da primeira vagem, altura final, número de vagens por planta, número de sementes por vagem e produtividade de grãos de soja. As maiores alturas de plantas de soja foram após o cultivo de crotalária, feijão guandu, lab lab e pousio. A altura da primeira vagem foi maior sobre a palhada de crotalária, lab lab e pousio e milheto. O uso do milheto, nabo forrageiro e feijão guandu proporcionaram maior número de vagens por planta em soja cultivada. Em 2016/2017 o sistema de plantio direto proporcionou maior produtividade da soja. No sistema de plantio convencional todas as plantas de cobertura proporcionaram aumento na produtividade em 2018/2019.
For the lettuce crop, there is no specific or standard methodology to evaluate genotype resistance of lettuce against downy mildew. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare three methodologies for the identification of resistance to downy mildew. The experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Monte Carmelo Campus between 2017 and 2018. The statistical method used was a completely randomized design with 12 treatments (cultivar Solaris, used as a control; and 11 genotypes of lettuce F5: 6: UFU-Crespa 75 # 2, UFU-Crespa 189 # 2, UFU-Crespa 206 # 1, UFU-Lisa 66 # 3, UFU-Lisa 66 # 7, UFU-Lisa 215 # 3, UFU-Lisa 215 # 6, UFU-Lisa 215 # 10, UFU-Lisa 215 # 12, UFU-Lisa 215 # 13, UFU-Lisa 215 # 14) and four replications. The seeding of genotypes was carried out in transparent boxes and after 15 days the inoculation was performed using a spore suspension (1x104 sporangia/ml) and sterile deionized water for the controls. The disease progression was assessed by three methods: Mesquita, Dickinson & Crute and Horsfall & Barrat. The data were standardized and submitted to the univariate analysis of variance by the F test and multivariate analyzes. The univariate clustering results allowed the separation of the genotypes into two distinct resistance groups for the Dickinson & Crute and Mesquita methods. In the multivariate analysis, more formation of groups among genotypes with different levels of resistance to downy mildew in the Mesquita method was observed. The methodology proposed by Mesquita was more efficient in discriminating genotypes with different levels of resistance to downy mildew, separating them in a larger number of groups.
Biofortified mini lettuce resistant to root-knot nematode with high agronomic potential is not yet a reality in Brazil. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic potential of lines of biofortified mini lettuces combined with resistance to M. javanica. Therefore, two experiments were performed: 1 -agronomic performance in the field; 2-resistance to M. javanica in the greenhouse. The experiments were arranged in a randomized block design (experiment 1) and in a completely randomized design (experiment 2), with ten treatments (six advanced lines and four commercial cultivars) and eight replications, conducted at the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU). The following parameters were evaluated in experiment 1: total chlorophyll content; plant and stem diameter; and number of leaves plant -1 . In experiment 2: gall index; number of galls and eggs root -1 ; reproduction factor. The evaluated genotypes which presented agronomic potential were generally not resistant to M. javanica, except UFU-66#6, an advanced lineage which is innovative in the segment of biofortified mini lettuce, combining agronomic potential and resistance to M. javanica.
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