Bark is a structure involved in multiple physiological functions, but which has been traditionally associated with protection against fire. Thus, little is known about how the morpho-anatomical variations of this structure are related to different ecological pressures, especially in tropical savanna species, which are commonly subjected to frequent fire and drought events. Here we evaluated how the structural and functional variations of bark are related to the processes of resilience and resistance to fire, as well as transport and storage of water in 31 native species from the Brazilian Cerrado. Because of their thick bark, none of the trees analyzed were top-killed after a severe fire event. The structural and functional variations of the bark were also associated with water storage and transport, functions related to properties of the inner bark. In fact, species with a thicker and less dense inner bark were the ones that had the highest water contents in the wood, bark, and leaves. Lower bark density was also related to higher stem hydraulic conductivity, carbon assimilation, and growth. Overall, we provide strong evidence that in addition to protection from fire, the relative investment in bark also reflects different strategies of water use and conservation among many Cerrado tree species.
The fodder radish is an important alternative late summer crop in central-western Brazil. The fodder radish has a short growing cycle, is highly productive and possesses qualities that enhance its cultivation potential as an alternative in Brazil's Biodiesel Program. However, drift of herbicides, such as glyphosate, may hinder the development of fodder radishes. Studies of chlorophyll fluorescence can provide measurements that help assess the effect of herbicide, being good indicator of the damage to photosynthetic apparatus promoted by herbicide. This study was carried out to analyze the effects of glyphosate by measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence, cellular membrane stability and chloroplast pigment contents in fodder radish plants. This experiment used a randomized block design in which the treatments consisted of the following 6 different doses: control, 0, 150, 300, 450, 600, 750 and 900 g i.a. ha −1 of the recommended 480 g•L −1 dose of glyphosate acid equivalent. The plants were sprayed 30 days after emergence and were assessed every 48 hours. The characteristics evaluated, including chlorophyll a fluorescence, chloroplast pigments and the rate of electrolyte leakage, indicated that radish plants are sensitive to glyphosate because the treatments resulted in reduced levels of photosynthetic efficiency and increased damage to cellular membranes, which led to a reduction in the chloroplast pigment content.
High irradiance promotes decreases in the quantum yield in plants, which reduce the photosynthetic rate. The excess of light in combination with water deficit can intensify the response of plants to stress, especially in species susceptible to those factors. The aim of the present study was to characterize the photosynthetic activity of young jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne) trees under different irradiance conditions, both alone and/or in combination with water deficit. Four irradiances [45, 230, 510, and 1,700 μmol(photon) m -2 s -1 ] and two levels of water in soil (90% and 50% of field capacity) were used. Gas exchange, water potential, and chlorophyll a fluorescence were measured. The highest rates of photosynthesis were observed under irradiances of 230 and 510 μmol(photon) m -2 s -1 . Irradiance of 1,700 μmol(photon) m -2 s -1 led to the photoinhibition of photosynthesis, as indicated by a reduced maximum quantum yield of PSII, effective quantum yield ratio, and electron transport rate, as well as higher nonphotochemical quenching. The most stressful to young H. stigonocarpa plants was high irradiance, while water deficit did not intensify the response to light stress.
-The objective of this study was to verify which morphometric measures and ratios are more directly associated with the weight and body yields of rounded fish. A total of 225 specimens of rounded fish (59 pacus, 61 tambaquis, 52 tambacus and 53 paquis) with average weight of 972.43 g (±115.52 g) were sampled, stunned, slaughtered, weighed, measured, and processed for morphometric and processing yield analysis. The morphometric measures taken were: standard length (CP); head length (CC); head height (AC); body height (A1); and body width (L1). For completeness, the following morphometric ratios were calculated: CC/CP, AC/CP, A1/CP, L1/CP, CC/A1, AC/A1, L1/A1, CC/AC and L1/CC. The yields of carcass, filet, rib and filet with rib were estimated after processing. Initially, a "stepwise" procedure was performed in order to eliminate multicollinearity problems among the morphometric variables, and the phenotypic correlations were then calculated for the dependent variables (weight and body yields) and independent variables (morphometric measurements and ratios). These correlations were later deployed in direct and indirect effects through path analysis, and the direct and indirect contributions of each variable were measured in percentage terms. The CC and A1 measures were important for determining the weight of rounded fish. The CC/A1 ratio was the variable most directly associated with carcass yield. For filet, filet with rib and rib yields, the L1/CC ratio was found to be more appropriate and can be used directly.
This study aimed to evaluate weight and morphometric growth of the products of the complete diallel cross-breeding between pacu and tambaqui during the period from the end of spring to the beginning of winter. Was used 400 pacu, tambaqui, tambacu and paqui. 20 fish from each group were collected, weighed and submitted to morphometric evaluation every 28 days. The Logistic function adjusted better to describe the growth in body weight and the morphometric measures for age on all the genetic groups. The studied groups presented similar behavior of growth for body weight and morphometric measures. There were significant differences between the genetic groups regarding parameters A (asymptotic value) and B (integration constant) for body weight and for all the morphometric measures evaluated. For the parameter K (maturity rate), there were significant difference between groups for body weight, head length and body height. The groups possibly were affected the decrease of temperature. The Tambacu was superior to the Paqui in all the variables evaluated for the parameter A, and was also superior to the pure breed, except for head length and body width.
RESUMO -Trinta e cinco machos de tilápia com peso médio de 205 g foram mantidos em caixas de 250 litros para avaliar o metabolismo lipídico de tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). O experimento foi conduzido durante 30 dias, entre os meses de outubro e novembro de 2006. Foram avaliadas cinco dietas, cada uma contendo óleo de oliva, óleo de milho, óleo de soja, óleo de linhaça ou óleo de peixe. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e sete repetições. Avaliaram-se a composição química, o perfil lipídico muscular e a atividade hepática de glicose-6-P desidrogenase (G6PD) e enzima málica. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância com médias comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott (5%). Não houve diferenças significativas para os teores de umidade e cinzas, porém, foram observadas alterações nos teores de lipídios e proteína nos peixes alimentados com as rações contendo óleo de oliva, milho ou soja. O fornecimento de dietas ricas em ácidos graxos poliinsaturados aumentou a composição desses ácidos graxos nos peixes. A atividade da G6PD foi superior à da enzima málica e foi mais alta nos animais alimentados com rações contendo óleos de oliva, milho ou soja, o que evidencia maior deposição lipídica muscular nesses peixes. plus soybean oil; control diet plus linseed oil; control diet plus fish oil. The experiment was in a completely randomized design with five treatments and seven replicates. The evaluated parameters were: fatty acid profile of the muscle tissue and hepatic activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (ME). The data were submitted to variance analysis and the means of the treatments were compared by Scott-Knott's test (5% of significance). The fish fed on a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids presented increased contents of such fat acids in their lipid muscle composition. The hepatic activity of G6PD was superior to that of ME, being higher in the specimen fed rations containing olive, corn and soybean oil, thus, evidencing the highest lipid muscle deposition of these fish.Key Words: fish, lipid, nutrition, oil IntroduçãoOs lipídios são importantes componentes da dieta e fornecem de maneira eficiente energia e ácidos graxos essenciais, no entanto, dietas com altos teores de lipídio podem influenciar o metabolismo animal e a composição da carcaça, com acúmulo indesejável de gordura.Em peixes, assim como em outras espécies de animais monogástricos, a composição lipídica tecidual reflete a alimentação e pode ser alterada pela manipulação da dieta. As fontes de ácidos graxos mais utilizadas na alimentação animal são as de origem vegetal, encontradas no mercado a preços mais acessíveis. Os óleos vegetais, como os de oliva, milho e soja, representam fontes ricas em ácidos graxos monoinsaturados e poliinsaturados ômega-6 (PUFAs ômega-6) e os de linhaça e de peixe constituem fontes de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados ômega-3 (PUFAs ômega-3).
A variety of cellular responses is needed to ensure the plants survival during drought, but little is known about the signaling mechanisms involved in this process. Soybean cultivars (EMBRAPA 48 and BR 16, tolerant and sensitive to drought, respectively) were exposed to the following treatments: control conditions (plants in field capacity), drought (20% of available water in the soil), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) treatment (plants irrigated and treated with 100‐µM SNP [SNP–nitric oxide (NO) donor molecule], and Drought + SNP (plants subjected to drought and SNP treatment). Plants remained in these conditions until the reproductive stage and were evaluated for physiological (photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange rates), hydraulic (water potential, osmotic potential and leaf hydraulic conductivity) and morpho‐anatomical traits (biomass, venation density and stomatal characterization). Exposure to water deficit considerably reduced water potential in both cultivars and resulted in decrease in photosynthesis and biomass accumulation. The addition of the NO donor attenuated these damaging effects of water deficit and increased the tolerance index of both cultivars. The results showed that NO was able to reduce plant's water loss, while maintaining their biomass production through alteration in stomatal characteristics, hydraulic conductivity and the biomass distribution pattern. These hydraulic and morpho‐anatomical alterations allowed the plants to obtain, transport and lose less water to the atmosphere, even in water deficit conditions.
Soybean is one of the most economically important crops and has experienced adverse physiological and biochemical effects when subjected to drought stress and heat, resulting in lost productivity. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological, metabolic and growth responses of well-watered and drought-treated soybean cultivars under high temperature. The experimental design was set up in randomized blocks, in a factorial scheme with three soybean cultivars (7739 M, Anta 82 and Desafio) and two water levels (100% and 40% field capacity). The experiment was conducted in a controlled growth chamber with a gradual rise in temperature at 41°C for 5 hours daily. Morpho-physiological and metabolic analyses were performed 12 days after the treatments imposition. The parameters of water and osmotic potentials, relative water content, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiratory rate, electron flux for the carboxylation and oxygenation of RuBisCO were decreased for all cultivars under water deficit and high temperature. The results showed that the photorespiration and the rate of electrolyte leakage were increased as well. These results showed that these physiological behaviors are standard for soybean plants under water deficit, regardless of cultivars. The cultivars 7739 M and Desafio showed lower performance than the cultivar Anta 82 for the parameters of total electron flow and effective quantum yield of PS II. The 7739 M and Anta 82 were the only cultivars to show increased nonphotochemical quenching dissipation and total soluble sugar content, respectively, under stress conditions. Desafio cultivar demonstrated greater physiological and growth traits stability, which could potentially indicate double tolerance to these stresses.
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