Leishmaniases are caused by obligate intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. They cause a spectrum of diseases, most notably visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL), and mucosal (ML) leishmaniasis, which affect millions of people around the world, each year. Despite scientific advances, leishmaniases cases are expanding, constituting an important public health problem. Immunological and molecular diagnostic tools have been increasingly applied for the early detection of these parasitic infections, since the existence of limitations in clinical and parasitological examinations may provide false results, thus interfering in epidemiological research and diseases control. Although there is a great diversity of available immunological assays, important common deficiencies persist, which explains the current exploration of the molecular biology in research fields, especially the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and its variants, such as real-time quantitative PCR. However, in the last years, significant results have also been reached inside of immunological context (especially by Flow Cytometry), for humans and dogs, demonstrated by research works of the New and Old worlds. In spite of their potential to clarify and minimize the present global situation of the diseases, the implementation of molecular or immunological innovative reference assays for VL and CL at health services is still a challenge due to several reasons, including lack of standardization among laboratories and structural concerns. In this article we bring classical and current information about technological advances for the immunological and molecular leishmaniases diagnosis, their features, and applications.