Large Animal Internal Medicine 2020
DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-323-55445-9.00035-5
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Diseases of the Nervous System

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Cited by 4 publications
(11 citation statements)
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References 1,307 publications
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“…Listeria monocytogenes infection (commonly known as ‘circling disease’) is well recognised in ruminant species but is considered rare in horses (Hoelzer et al., 2012; Mackay et al., 2020). The clinical signs seen in ruminants are typically related to unilateral or bilateral brainstem and cranial nerve deficits, which often manifests as leaning and/or circling to one side, drooling, head tilting, ear drooping and facial paralysis (Oevermann, Di Palma, et al., 2010; Oevermann, Zurbriggen, & Vandevelde, 2010).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Listeria monocytogenes infection (commonly known as ‘circling disease’) is well recognised in ruminant species but is considered rare in horses (Hoelzer et al., 2012; Mackay et al., 2020). The clinical signs seen in ruminants are typically related to unilateral or bilateral brainstem and cranial nerve deficits, which often manifests as leaning and/or circling to one side, drooling, head tilting, ear drooping and facial paralysis (Oevermann, Di Palma, et al., 2010; Oevermann, Zurbriggen, & Vandevelde, 2010).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Another common recommendation to detect arterial flow is placing the needle in the direction of the venous blood flow (pointing the needle towards the heart), but this technique was not performed by any of our respondents. Lastly, the use of large bore needles (14‐16G) has also been suggested to allow for easier detection of pulsation flow and assessment of blood colour (Christian et al, 1974; Mackay et al, 2020). In this survey, all participants used smaller bore needles (≥18 G).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The carotid artery provides blood supply to the ocular structures and the circle of Willis via the internal carotid artery, and thence to the ipsilateral thalamus and rostral and middle cerebrum (Mackay et al, 2020). Therefore, seizures and neurological signs are expected to be primary signs of this complication in large animal species.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…[ 2 , 4 ], and Escherichia coli [ 13 , 27 ]. Generally, NBSM is caused by septicemia from the dissemination of invasive bacteria from the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts or umbilical cord [ 19 ].…”
mentioning
confidence: 99%
“…It was unknown from where K. pneumoniae invaded No. 2, however, based on the neutrophilic infiltration in the liver and spleen, K. pneumoniae would be transferred into the CNS hematogenously [ 19 ]. The results of immunohistochemical staining and PCR suggested that K. pneumoniae invaded the CNS of No.…”
mentioning
confidence: 99%