Abstract:Abstract:Iranian scorpions belong mainly to the Buthidae and Scorpionidae families, distributed into 16 genera and 25 species. In Iran, similar to other parts of the world, there are a few known species of scorpions responsible for severe envenoming; amongst which Mesobuthus eupeus is the most common. Its venom contains several toxin fractions that may affect the ion channel. In the present study purification, labeling and biological evaluation of M. eupeus venom are described. For separation, soluble venom wa… Show more
“…Bio‐distribution of two purified toxic fractions of M. eupeus toxin in mice show rapid clearance of the compounds from blood and tissue, except for the kidneys, signifying that M. eupeus toxicity may not last long in the body. Dissociation of the toxin‐channel complex during depolarization is determined by the difference between electrical energies of the activated states of normal and toxin‐modified channels .…”
About 50 species of scorpions cause fatal scorpionism worldwide. Most of these are members of the Buthidae family, and include, among others,
. Because high doses of scorpion venom and antivenom can cause death and hypersensitive reactions, there is a need to develop a formula that can be used to calculate both lethal and effective doses for scorpion venom and antivenom, respectively, thereby obviating the need for laboratory experiments.
In view of this, a literature search was carried out with the aim of modifying the formula (
) for calculation of the median lethal dose (LD
) of scorpion venom and the ED
of antivenom. The human equivalent dose (HED) formula was assessed for extrapolation of LD
from animals to human for comparison and relevance with the new formula.
The findings showed that the newly developed formula (LD
) yielded results that are very close to the reported values. Therefore, the newly developed and HED formulas can be used for calculation of LD
values for scorpion venom and antivenom, respectively.
The new formula yielded better results than the HED formula, confirming its predictive validity, precision, and reliability, thereby obviating the need for rigorous experiments and justifying the principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement (3Rs).
“…Two purified toxic fractions of Mesobuthus eupeus toxin were quickly eliminated from tissue  signifying that M. eupeus toxicity may not last long in the body. Dissociation of the toxin-channel complex during depolarization is determined by the difference between electrical energies of the activated states of normal and toxin-modified channels .…”
Toxicosis is a poisoning caused by venomous animals such as snake, scorpion, honeybee, spider, and wasp. Their poisons contain amino acids, peptides, proteins, enzymes, and metallic ions that are responsible for neurotoxicity, hemotoxicity, and myotoxicity. Because of in vivo therapeutic challenges posed by toxicosis, there is need for ideal therapeutic agents against envenomation caused by venomous animals. Findings have shown that toxicosis could be treated symptomatically. Snake and scorpion antivenins could be used for treatment of poisoning caused by snake, scorpion, honeybee, spider, and wasp. The amount of antivenin is dependent on the quantity of venom injected into the affected individuals. More so, symptomatic treatments are also done according to the systems affected. Hospitalization is necessary for assessment of therapeutic success.
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