These positive examples in recent years must not mask the dangerous consequences of failing to meet the Paris Agreement, the past two decades of relative inaction, the economies and sectors currently lagging behind, and the enormity of the task ahead, which leave achieving the Agreement's aims in a precarious position. Indeed, much of the data presented should serve as a wake-up call to national governments, businesses, civil society, and the health profession. However, as this report demonstrates, the world has already begun to embark on a path to a lowcarbon and healthier world. Whilst the pace of action must greatly accelerate, the direction of travel is set.
Approximately 34,000 Iranians known to have sustained mustard agent exposure during the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988 and survived over a decade afterwards were screened for distribution of the most commonly occurring medical problems. In order of greatest incidence, these include lesions of the lungs (42.5%), eyes (39.3%), and skin (24.5%). Within each subpopulation, patients were ranked according to severity of lesions. Twenty-three percent to 37% of patients exhibited at least mild coverage, with 1.5% to 4.5% classed as moderate, and a much smaller population (0.023-1.0%) of the 34,000 patients exhibiting extensive (severe) lesional coverage. These results provide a comprehensive overview of the medical problem most common among mustard victims and could serve as a predictor of the likely impact of these weapons on health status of populations exposed to them during ongoing military conflicts.
Sulfur mustard (SM) and similar bifunctional agents have been used as chemical weapons for almost 100 years. Victims of high-dose exposure, both combatants and civilians, may die within hours or weeks, but low-dose exposure causes both acute injury to the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other parts of the body, and chronic sequelae in these organs are often debilitating and have a serious impact on quality of life. Ever since they were first used in warfare in 1917, SM and other mustard agents have been the subjects of intensive research, and their chemistry, pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of toxic action are now fairly well understood. In the present article we review this knowledge and relate the molecular-biological basis of SM toxicity, as far as it has been elucidated, to the pathological effects on exposure victims.
Ever since it was first used in armed conflict, mustard gas (sulfur mustard, MG) has been known to cause a wide range of acute and chronic injuries to exposure victims. The earliest descriptions of these injuries were published during and in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, and a further series of accounts followed the Second World War. More recently, MG has been deployed in warfare in the Middle East and this resulted in large numbers of victims, whose conditions have been studied in detail at hospitals in the region. In this review, we bring together the older and more recent clinical studies on MG toxicity and summarize what is now known about the acute and chronic effects of the agent on the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other physiological systems. In the majority of patients, the most clinically serious long-term consequences of MG poisoning are on the respiratory system, but the effects on the skin and other systems also have a significant impact on quality of life. Aspects of the management of these patients are discussed.
Mustard gas (HD) was a widely used chemical warfare agent during World War I and more recently in the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1988). To date, dramatically, 45,000 Iranians are suffering from late respiratory complications due to MG exposure. This review covers two decades of researches on latent pulmonary effects of MG. Findings from clinical manifestations, pathologic examinations, laboratory data, lung function tests, and radiological evaluations are reviewed. From this review we are able to provide a suitable practical plan for workup and management of patients in this setting.
Oxidative stress plays a key role in the development of chronic pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard (SM). Curcuminoids are polyphenols with documented safety and antioxidant activity. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of short-term supplementation with curcuminoids (co-administered with piperine to enhance the bioavailability of curcuminoids) in alleviating systemic oxidative stress and clinical symptoms, and improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subjects suffering from chronic pulmonary complications due to SM exposure who are receiving standard respiratory treatments. Eighty-nine subjects were recruited to this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, being randomly allocated to either curcuminoids (1500 mg/day) + piperine (15 mg/day) combination (n = 45) or placebo (n = 44) for a period of 4 weeks. High-resolution computed tomography suggested the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans in all subjects. Efficacy measures were changes in serum levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonedialdehyde (MDA). The severity and frequency of respiratory symptoms and HRQoL were also assessed using St. George respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) indices. Serum levels of GSH were increased whilst those of MDA decreased by the end of trial in both groups. Likewise, there were significant improvements in the total as well as subscale (symptoms, activity and impact) SGRQ and CAT scores in both groups. However, comparison of magnitude of changes revealed a greater effect of curcuminoids-piperine combination compared to placebo in elevating GSH, reducing MDA and improving CAT and SGRQ (total and subscale) scores (p < 0.001). Regarding the promising effects of curcuminoids on the measures of systemic oxidative stress, clinical symptoms and HRQoL, these phytochemicals may be used as safe adjuvants in patients suffering from chronic SM-induced pulmonary complications who are receiving standard treatments.
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