There is abundant literature on the toxicity of A. precatorius seeds. However there is a need to define the toxicity limit of the Abrus precatorius leaf in monogastric animals. Human Equivalent Dose (HED) which is equal to animal dose multiplied by animal km (metabolism constant) divided by human km was used to project the LD 50 of fifteen monogastric animals , where human km factor is body weight (kg) divided by body surface area (m 2 ). Human Equivalent No-observable Adverse Effect Doses were determined by multiplying the animal no-observable adverse effect dose by animal weight (Wa) divided by human weight (Wh). The LD 50 of the aqueous leaf extract of Abrus precatorius in mice was estimated to be between 2559.5 and 3123.3 mg/kg body weight. The LD 50 extrapolated from mouse to rat (1349.3-1646.6 mg/kg), hamster (1855.3-2264.1 mg/kg), guinea pig (1279.5-1561.4 mg/kg), rabbit (618.4-754.7 mg/kg), monkey (593.7-724.5 mg/kg), cat (392.7-479.2 mg/kg), dog and baboon (371.1-452.8 mg/kg), child (297-362 mg/kg) and adult human (197.8-241.5 mg/kg) body weight respectively could be a reality. The therapeutic safe dose range for the animals was 1-12.5 mg/kg body weight for a period of 7 days, but at a dose (≤ 200 mg/kg body weight) the leaf extract showed haematinic effect. However, at a higher dose (> 200 mg/kg), the extract showed haemolytic activity in rats, whereas at a dose (≥25.0 mg/kg), the leaf extract might be organotoxic in hamster, guinea pig, rabbit, monkey, cat, dog, baboon, child and adult human if administered orally for a period of 7 days.
About 50 species of scorpions cause fatal scorpionism worldwide. Most of these are members of the Buthidae family, and include, among others,
. Because high doses of scorpion venom and antivenom can cause death and hypersensitive reactions, there is a need to develop a formula that can be used to calculate both lethal and effective doses for scorpion venom and antivenom, respectively, thereby obviating the need for laboratory experiments.
In view of this, a literature search was carried out with the aim of modifying the formula (
) for calculation of the median lethal dose (LD
) of scorpion venom and the ED
of antivenom. The human equivalent dose (HED) formula was assessed for extrapolation of LD
from animals to human for comparison and relevance with the new formula.
The findings showed that the newly developed formula (LD
) yielded results that are very close to the reported values. Therefore, the newly developed and HED formulas can be used for calculation of LD
values for scorpion venom and antivenom, respectively.
The new formula yielded better results than the HED formula, confirming its predictive validity, precision, and reliability, thereby obviating the need for rigorous experiments and justifying the principles of reduction, refinement, and replacement (3Rs).
The research was carried out to evaluate the in-vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents of Cassia occ dential s. Cassia leaves were collected from Kacha town in Niger State and extracted using methano , hexane, chloroform and water extraction methods. Serial concentrations: 50 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 % methanol, hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts were prepared and sterilized. The bacterial isolates used; E. coli, P. multocida, S. typhi, S. typhimurium, S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae and K. pneumoniae were authenticated using biochemical and serological methods. The suspens on (0.5) of each bacterial isolate was prepared in isotonic sodium chloride. The disc agar diffusion method was performed on 70 Mueller-Hinton agar p ates, 10 per microorganism , using serial diffusion concentrat on: 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 mg o hexane, methanol, chloroform and water. The results showed that all the extracts of Cassia occidentalis have antimicrobial activity on E col at concentrations between 900-1000 mg. E. coli was most susceptible to hexane extract at concentration ranges between 500-1000 mg, there was no antimicrobial activity exhibited against the other tested microorganisms Phytochemical analyses showed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponin, glycoside and flavonoid, steroid was absent.
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