Flexion is an important outcome variable after total knee arthroplasty. Traditionally, matched implant-bone resections of the distal and posterior aspects of the femur are used to prevent loss of knee flexion or extension. However, given limited implant sizes, resection of these portions of the femur may affect the shape of the knee. Variations in the anterior aspects of the femur along with implant size constraints may increase trochlear groove height in the anterior compartment, increase the arc that the extensor mechanism must travel, and thereby decrease passive flexion. We determined the trochlear groove height change in 55 patients after primary total knee arthroplasties. The thickness of the replaced lateral and medial anterior flanges increased by 1.1 +/- 2.6 mm and 0.5 +/- 2.2 mm, respectively, whereas the change in trochlear groove thickness was 0 +/- 1.1 mm. We examined varying amounts of patellofemoral buildup in a cadaver model to observe the effect on passive range of motion of the knee. A 2-mm and 4-mm buildup of the anterior cortex resulted in flexion loss of 1.8 degrees and 4.4 degrees, respectively. The change in the shape of the anterior aspect of the femur may have small effects on flexion but they may not be clinically important.
Stiffness of the medial (MCL) and lateral (LCL) collateral ligaments was compared between a group of 10 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty for varus degenerative osteoarthritis (OAP), a group of 10 osteoarthritic cadaveric knees (OAC), and a group of 10 non-osteoarthritic cadaveric knees (NOA). A load4ongation curve was obtained for the medial and lateral compartments of each knee using an instrumented Moreland spreader. A strain gage (SG) was attached to the spreader handle and strain was calibrated to load applied against the spread distance. In extension, medial compartment stiffness of the OAP, OAC, and NOA groups
The following finite element study was conducted to determine whether increased body weight, femoral retroversion, and varus hip loading could sufficiently raise physeal shear strains and stresses above the yield point and predispose an adolescent hip to a slip. A computer tomography scan of a 13-year-old child with slipped capital femoral epiphysis was used to generate a solid model of the proximal femur and physis. The model was parameterized using 3-dimensional software to generate three difference angles of femoral neck version-neutral, 15 degrees retroversion, and 15 degrees anteversion. Loads of 2.7 times body weight in a 46- and 86-kg child were applied to the proximal femur to model stance on one leg. In addition, the loading vector was reoriented at various degrees of varus to study the effect of varus loading on physis shear. The results demonstrated that physis stress, strain, and displacement increased with greater body weight, retroversion, and varus displacement of the loading vector. Physis shear strain in hips with a combination of varus loading and femoral neck retroversion exceeded the reported ultimate strain values for cartilaginous soft tissues. The finite element models suggest that in an overweight child, the combination of retroversion and varus hip load may be sufficient to increase physeal strains above the yield point and result in a slip.
The main purpose of this study was to determine whether calcaneal ultrasound parameters, measured in the mediolateral direction, reflect load-bearing capacities of human calcanei. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and ultrasound velocity (UV) were measured in 20 cadaveric calcanei with a mean age of 74.1 (SD 8.8). Normalized BUA (nBUA) was determined by dividing BUA by the calcaneal thickness obtained using a pulse-echo technique. The bone mineral density (BMD) of each calcaneus was measured by quantitative computed tomography. The calcanei were embedded in PMMA to simulate the midstance physiologic orientation during compressive testing in the load-bearing direction. The failure load, stiffness, and energy absorption were determined for each calcaneus. It was shown that BMD was well correlated with all ultrasound parameters (P < 0.0001). BMD, BUA, nBUA, and UV were all significantly associated with calcaneal failure load, stiffness, and energy absorption capacity (P < 0.05). nBUA was found to be the strongest predictor of all compressive properties. BUA and BMD demonstrated similar predictability of stiffness and energy absorption capacity, however, BUA showed a more significant relationship to the failure load of the calcaneus than did BMD. UV was found to be inferior to BMD, as well as BUA or nBUA, in assessing failure load, stiffness, and energy absorption capacity. It was also shown that nBUA was superior to BUA in the assessment of load-bearing capacity, but not in the prediction of BMD. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the combination of BUA or nBUA with UV did not improve the predictability of failure load, stiffness, and energy absorption capacity over that of BUA or nBUA alone (P > 0.5).
Rotational stresses from box-post impingement have been implicated in the loosening of posterior-stabilized total knee prostheses. A bench model was constructed to assess the forces generated by tibiofemoral rotation. Rotational torque under load was measured in two different posteriorstabilized total knee prostheses using an axial-torsion load cell at 0 degrees, 20 degrees, and 40 degrees flexion over 20 degrees internal and external rotation. The Sigma posterior-stabilized prosthesis generated little torque through 5 degrees internal and external rotation. An increase in torque then occurred because of box-post impingement, generating peak torques of 17 to 18 N-m at 12 degrees to 14 degrees rotation. The bench model produced the same deformation of the polyethylene post as seen on retrieved specimens. The Scorpio posterior-stabilized prosthesis had a relatively continuous rise in generated torque from tibiofemoral conformity. Box-post impingement did not occur resulting in 32% lower torque between 12 degrees and 14 degrees rotation. Peak rotational torques of 15 to 16 N-m were reached at 19 degrees to 20 degrees rotation. Tibiofemoral conformity is the primary source of rotational constraint. Box-post impingement can be a source of additional rotational constraint. Depending on specific design features, small changes in relative tibiofemoral component rotation can more than double the generated torque. Axial rotation of the knee in vivo can generate substantial torque. Relative tibiofemoral rotational position is an important factor influencing component function and fixation.
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