Mortality is predicted by ISS and by complications in older patients. Seventy-seven percent of the orthopedic injuries were stabilized early, but the timing of surgery did not have any statistical effect on the incidence of complications or mortality. (ABSTRACT TRUNCA
Stiffness of the medial (MCL) and lateral (LCL) collateral ligaments was compared between a group of 10 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty for varus degenerative osteoarthritis (OAP), a group of 10 osteoarthritic cadaveric knees (OAC), and a group of 10 non-osteoarthritic cadaveric knees (NOA). A load4ongation curve was obtained for the medial and lateral compartments of each knee using an instrumented Moreland spreader. A strain gage (SG) was attached to the spreader handle and strain was calibrated to load applied against the spread distance. In extension, medial compartment stiffness of the OAP, OAC, and NOA groups
Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an effective agent used for reducing perioperative blood loss and decreasing the potential for postoperative hemarthrosis. We hypothesized that patients who had received intraoperative TXA during total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) would have a reduction in postoperative drain output, thereby resulting in a reduced risk of postoperative hemarthrosis and lower wound complication rates. A retrospective review was conducted on 50 consecutive patients, 25 receiving TXA (TXA-TAA) and 25 not receiving TXA (No TXA-TAA), who underwent an uncemented TAA between September 2011 and December 2015. Demographic characteristics, drain output, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin levels, operative and postoperative course, and minor and major wound complications of the patients were reviewed. Drain output was significantly less in the TXA-TAA group compared to that in the No TXA-TAA group (71.6 ± 60.3 vs 200.2 ± 117.0 mL, respectively, P < .0001). The overall wound complication rate in the No TXA-TAA group was higher (20%, 5/25) than that in the TXA-TAA group (8%, 2/25) (P = .114). The mean change in preoperative to postoperative hemoglobin level was significantly less in the TXA-TAA group compared to that in the No TXA-TAA group (1.5 ± 0.6 vs 2.0 ± 0.4 g/dL, respectively, P = .01). TXA is an effective hemostatic agent when used during TAA. TXA reduces perioperative blood loss, hemarthrosis, and the risk of wound complications.
For AO 44-B2 ankle fractures of uncertain stability, the current diagnostic standard is to obtain a gravity stress radiograph, but some have advocated for the use of weight-bearing radiographs. The primary aim was to compare measures of medial clear space (MCS) on weight-bearing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans versus gravity stress radiographs for determining the state of stability of ankle fractures classified as AO SER 44-B2 or Weber B. The secondary aim was to evaluate the details offered by CBCT scans with respect to other findings that may be relevant to patient care. Nine patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study between April 2016 and February 2017 if they had an AO SER 44-B2 fracture of uncertain stability, had a gravity stress radiograph, and were able to undergo CT scan within seven days.The width of the MCS was measured at the level of the talar dome on all radiographs and at the mid coronal slice on CT. Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests were used to compare MCS between initial radiographs, gravity stress radiographs and weight-bearing CBCT scans. MCS on weight-bearing CBCT scan (1.41±0.41 mm) was significantly less than standard radiographs (3.28±1.63 mm, P=0.004) and gravity stress radiographs (5.82±1.93 mm, P=0.02). There was no statistically significant difference in MCS measured on standard radiographs versus gravity stress radiographs (P=0.11). Detailed review of the multiplanar CT images revealed less than perfect anatomical reduction of the fractures, with residual fibular shortening, posterior displacement, and fracture fragments in the incisura as typical findings. Similar to weight-bearing radiographs, weight-bearing CBCT scan can predict stability of AO 44-B2 ankle fractures by showing restoration of the MCS, and might be used to indicate patients for non-operative treatment. None of the fractures imaged in this study were perfectly reduced however, and further clinical research is necessary to determine if any of the detailed weight-bearing CBCT findings are related to patient outcomes.
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