This cross-sectional exploratory study involved health care workers of various skill types and levels. We tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of diseases, sleep complaints, and insufficient time for nonprofessional activities (family, leisure, and rest) are higher among night than day workers. Data collection was carried out in two public hospitals using questionnaires and other forms. Night work was explored as a risk factor, considering a night worker as one who had at least one night job on the occasion of the research. Data were assessed by a univariate analysis. The association between work schedule and the dependent variables--health conditions, sleep complaints, and insufficient time for nonprofessional activities--was evaluated through the estimation of the prevalence ratio, with a confidence interval of 95%. Two hundred and fifty-eight female nursing personnel participated; 41.5% were moonlighters, and only 20 worked a shift of less than 12h in length. Reports of migraine and need of medical care the 2 weeks before the survey were more prevalent among day than night workers (PR=0.71; CI=0.55-0.92 and PR=0.71; CI=0.52-0.95, respectively). Migraine headaches occurred less frequently among night than day workers as confirmed by comparing the reports of the night workers and day workers whose work history was always day shifts (PR = 0.74; CI = 0.57-0.96). Reports of mild emotional disorders (mild depression, tension, anxiety, or insomnia) were less frequent among night (PR=0.76; CI=0.59-0.98) and ex-night workers (PR=0.68; CI=0.50-0.91) than day workers who never had worked a night job. The healthy worker effect does not seem to explain the results of the comparisons between day and night workers. The possible role of exposure by day workers to some risk factors, such as stress, was suggested as an explanation for these results. No significant difference was observed between night and day workers as to sleep complaints, a result that may have been influenced by the nature of the shift-work schedule (no successive night shifts) and possibly nap taking during the night shift. Moreover, the long work hours and moonlighting of the healthcare workers, which is common in Brazil, may have masked other possible differences between the day and night workers. Among night workers, a significant relation was found between years working nights (more than 10 yrs) and high cholesterol values (PR = 2.58; CI = 1.07-6.27), a result that deserves additional study. Working nights more than four times per 2-week span was related to complaints about insufficient time for children (PR= 1.96; CI = 1.38-2.78) and rest/leisure (PR= 1.54; CI = 1.20-1.99). These results can be related to the "social value of time," as evenings and nights are when families usually spend time together. The complexity of the professional life and the consequent heterogeneity of the group of workers under shift-work schemes confound the results. More in-depth study of the questions raised here demands a more sophisticated epidemiological treatment an...
A significant increase in the incidence of male infertility has been described in the international literature, raising questions about its causes. Part of this effect may result from synthetic toxic substances acting on the endocrine system (endocrine disruptors), many of which are routinely used in work processes. We provide a critical review of the specialized literature on work-related chemical substances capable of causing male infertility. Pesticides such as DDT, linuron, and others, heavy metals like mercury, lead, cadmium, and copper, and substances from various industrial uses and residues such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ethylene dibromide (EDB), phthalates, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and ethanol are among the main endocrine disruptors that can cause male infertility. Based on the literature, gonadal dysfunction and congenital malformation are the main alterations caused by these substances in the male reproductive system. We conclude that despite the relative lack of studies on this issue, the relevance of such risk calls for further studies as well as measures to prevent workers' exposure to the various substances.
ObjectiveTo assess whether reported morbidity and complaints of lack of time and sleep are associated with the burden of professional work and housework among nurses. Methods A cross-sectional exploratory study was carried out among female nurses and nurse assistants (N=206) of a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire. The prevalence ratio and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Results Mean duration of professional work and housework time was 40.4 and 31.6 hours/ week, respectively. Long professional working time (over 44 hours/week) were associated with mild emotional disorders (PR=1.37; 95% CI: 1.05-1.80), complaints of lack of time for resting/leisure (PR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.31-1.97), housework (PR=1.48; 95% CI: 1.12-1.97), and childcare (PR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.51-2.63). Long housework time (over 28 hours/week) was associated with lower prevalence of lack of time for childcare (PR=0.62; 95% CI: 0.46-0.84). High housework load was associated with lack of personal time and complaints of varicose veins (PR=1.31; 95% CI: 1.14-1.50 and PR=1.31; 95% CI: 1.08-1.58, respectively). Complaints of varicose veins were also frequent among female nurses with a total work load above 84 hours (PR=1.30; 95% CI: 1.05-1.61), though this group has shown a lower prevalence of arterial hypertension and recurrent headaches (PR=0.35; 95% CI: 0.15-0.83 and PR=0.53; 95% CI: 0.32-0.89, respectively).
ConclusionsResults suggest that both professional and home environments are relevant in the evaluation of work overload on nurses' health and their family and social life. It is stressed the need for instruments for analyzing total workload among female populations.
ObjetivoAvaliar a associação entre a carga de trabalho profissional e doméstico com doenças e queixas sobre o sono e falta de tempo em enfermeiras.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.