The established function of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is to promote thyroid follicle development and hormone secretion. The osteoporosis associated with hyperthyroidism is traditionally viewed as a secondary consequence of altered thyroid function. We provide evidence for direct effects of TSH on both components of skeletal remodeling, osteoblastic bone formation, and osteoclastic bone resorption, mediated via the TSH receptor (TSHR) found on osteoblast and osteoclast precursors. Even a 50% reduction in TSHR expression produces profound osteoporosis (bone loss) together with focal osteosclerosis (localized bone formation). TSH inhibits osteoclast formation and survival by attenuating JNK/c-jun and NFkappaB signaling triggered in response to RANK-L and TNFalpha. TSH also inhibits osteoblast differentiation and type 1 collagen expression in a Runx-2- and osterix-independent manner by downregulating Wnt (LRP-5) and VEGF (Flk) signaling. These studies define a role for TSH as a single molecular switch in the independent control of both bone formation and resorption.
The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus Skuse are the major vectors of dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses worldwide. Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium present in many insects, is being utilized in novel vector control strategies to manipulate mosquito life history and vector competence to curb virus transmission. Earlier studies have found that Wolbachia is commonly detected in Ae. albopictus but rarely detected in Ae. aegypti. In this study, we used a two‐step PCR assay to detect Wolbachia in wild‐collected samples of Ae. aegypti. The PCR products were sequenced to validate amplicons and identify Wolbachia strains. A loop‐mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and used for detecting Wolbachia in selected mosquito specimens as well. We found Wolbachia in 85/148 (57.4%) wild Ae. aegypti specimens from various cities in New Mexico, and in 2/46 (4.3%) from St. Augustine, Florida. Wolbachia was not detected in 94 samples of Ae. aegypti from Deer Park, Harris County, Texas. Wolbachia detected in Ae. aegypti from both New Mexico and Florida was the wAlbB strain of Wolbachia pipientis. A Wolbachia‐positive colony of Ae. aegypti was established from pupae collected in Las Cruces, New Mexico, in 2018. The infected females of this strain transmitted Wolbachia to their progeny when crossed with males of Rockefeller strain of Ae. aegypti, which does not carry Wolbachia. In contrast, none of the progeny of Las Cruces males mated to Rockefeller females were infected with Wolbachia.
Elizabethkingia anophelis is a dominant bacterial species in the gut ecosystem of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. We recently sequenced the genomes of two strains of E. anophelis, R26T and Ag1, isolated from different strains of A. gambiae. The two bacterial strains are identical with a few exceptions. Phylogenetically, Elizabethkingia is closer to Chryseobacterium and Riemerella than to Flavobacterium. In line with other Bacteroidetes known to utilize various polymers in their ecological niches, the E. anophelis genome contains numerous TonB dependent transporters with various substrate specificities. In addition, several genes belonging to the polysaccharide utilization system and the glycoside hydrolase family were identified that could potentially be of benefit for the mosquito carbohydrate metabolism. In agreement with previous reports of broad antibiotic resistance in E. anophelis, a large number of genes encoding efflux pumps and β-lactamases are present in the genome. The component genes of resistance-nodulation-division type efflux pumps were found to be syntenic and conserved in different taxa of Bacteroidetes. The bacterium also displays hemolytic activity and encodes several hemolysins that may participate in the digestion of erythrocytes in the mosquito gut. At the same time, the OxyR regulon and antioxidant genes could provide defense against the oxidative stress that is associated with blood digestion. The genome annotation and comparative genomic analysis revealed functional characteristics associated with the symbiotic relationship with the mosquito host.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes an acute, viremic infection of 4 to 6 weeks, followed by a persistent infection lasting for several months. We characterized antibody and B-cell responses to viral proteins in acute and persistent infection to better understand the immunological basis of the prolonged infection. The humoral immune response to PRRSV was robust overall and varied among individual viral proteins, with the important exception of a delayed and relatively weak response to envelope glycoprotein 5 (GP5). Memory B cells were in secondary lymphoid organs, not in bone marrow or Peyer's patches, in contrast to the case for many mammalian species. Potent anti-PRRSV memory responses were elicited to recall antigen in vitro, even though a second infection did not increase the B-cell response in vivo, suggesting that productive reinfection does not occur in vivo. Antibody titers to several viral proteins decline over time, even though abundant antigen is known to be present in lymphoid tissues, possibly indicating ineffective antigen presentation. The appearance of antibodies to GP5 is delayed relative to the resolution of viremia, suggesting that anti-GP5 antibodies are not crucial for resolving viremia. Lastly, viral infection had no immunosuppressive effect on the humoral response to a second, unrelated antigen. Taking these data together, the active effector and memory B-cell responses to PRRSV are robust, and over time the humoral immune response to PRRSV is effective. However, the delayed response against GP5 early in infection may contribute to the prolonged acute infection and the establishment of persistence.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) non-structural proteins (nsps) play a key role in processing and maturation of the repertoire of structural and nsps of the virion, but little is known about the anti-nsp immune response. Here, it was hypothesized that pronounced antibody responses are generated to PRRSV nsp1 and nsp2, as they are present in infected cells and cytolytic infection releases viral proteins into interstitial spaces. Accordingly, nsp1 and nsp2 were cloned and expressed, and antibody responses in the sera of infected and vaccinated pigs were determined. Pigs mounted significant cross-reactive antibody responses that appeared equivalent to or greater than the response to nucleocapsid (N). Antibody reactivity to nsp1 and N was highly dependent on refolding of denatured proteins, suggesting that the porcine antibody response is directed primarily to conformational epitopes. The proteins reacted with sera from pigs infected with other PRRSV strains, indicating that multiple epitopes are conserved. Antibody responses to nsp1 and nsp2 were much higher than those to nsp4, which is encoded on the same RNA molecule and is equivalent in predicted antigenicity. These findings suggest either that nsp1 and nsp2 are highly immunogenic or that they are expressed at higher levels than nsp4 in PRRSV-infected cells, or both. Strong antibody responses to nsp1 and nsp2 may benefit the host by limiting potentially pathological consequences of viral protease activities encoded in these proteins that are released from dying cells. The identification of strain-specific antibody responses to a highly variable region of nsp2 may also provide the basis for immunoassays that differentiate serological responses of vaccines from field isolates. INTRODUCTIONA new viral disease of pigs, typified by late-term abortions and stillbirths in sows and interstitial pneumonia in nursery pigs, was detected in North America in 1987(Hill, 1990Keffaber, 1989) and in Europe in 1990(Paton et al., 1991, and then characterized as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) Wensvoort et al., 1991). The causative agent is a small, enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus. It is a member of the family Arteriviridae, which includes Equine arteritis virus (den Boon et al., 1991;Meulenberg et al., 1993), Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus of mice (Plagemann & Moennig, 1992) and Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (Zeng et al., 1995), in the order Nidovirales (Cavanagh, 1997). PRRSV predominantly infects macrophages and establishes a persistent infection in resident macrophages of numerous lymphoid tissues (Lawson et al., 1997).A complex immunological interaction exists between PRRSV and pigs that involves both induction and subversion of host defences . Exposure to PRRSV induces an immune response that protects pigs against re-exposure to the same virus. However, pigs exposed to PRRSV also demonstrate prolonged viraemia and persistent infection, may conti...
BackgroundAnopheles sinensis has become an important malaria vector in China. The long-term extensive utilization of pyrethroids for ITNs and IRS for mosquito control in the last three decades has resulted in the occurrence of resistant An. sinensis populations in many regions. Knockdown resistance (kdr), caused by point mutations in the VGSC gene, is one of the mechanisms that confer resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. Recently, several investigations revealed the kdr occurrence in some An. sinensis populations, however, no kdr data were available earlier than 2009. A survey tracking the dynamics of the kdr mutations in past decades would provide invaluable information to understand how the kdr alleles spread in mosquito populations temporally and spatially.MethodsA survey was conducted on the kdr alleles at condon 1014 of the VGSC gene and their distributions in 733 specimens of An. sinensis and 232 specimens of the other eight member species of the Anopheles hyrcanus group that were collected from 17 provinces in China in 1996–2014.ResultsA total of three kdr alleles, TTT (F), TTG (F) and TGT (C) were detected, and TGT (C) and TTT (F) were already present in the specimens from Jiangsu and Shandong as early as 1997. The TTT (F) was the most frequent mutant allele, and largely distributed in central China, namely Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan, Shanghai, Jiangxi and Hubei. When data were analysed in three time intervals, 1996–2001, 2005–2009, 2010–2014, the prevalence of kdr alleles increased progressively over time in the populations in central China. In contrast, the kdr alleles were less frequent in the samples from other regions, especially in Yunnan and Hainan, despite the documented presence of pyrethroid resistant populations in those regions. Interestingly, no mutant alleles were detected in all 232 specimens of eight other species in the An. hyrcanus group.ConclusionThe survey revealed that the kdr occurrence and accumulation in the An. sinensis populations were more frequent in central China than in the other regions, suggesting that the kdr mutations may contribute significantly to the pyrethroid resistance in the mosquitoes in central China.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12936-015-0644-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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