Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it is difficult to amplify in fungi, often includes large introns, and can be insufficiently variable. Three subunits from the nuclear ribosomal RNA cistron were compared together with regions of three representative proteincoding genes (largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and minichromosome maintenance protein). Although the protein-coding gene regions often had a higher percent of correct identification compared with ribosomal markers, low PCR amplification and sequencing success eliminated them as candidates for a universal fungal barcode. Among the regions of the ribosomal cistron, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has the highest probability of successful identification for the broadest range of fungi, with the most clearly defined barcode gap between inter-and intraspecific variation. The nuclear ribosomal large subunit, a popular phylogenetic marker in certain groups, had superior species resolution in some taxonomic groups, such as the early diverging lineages and the ascomycete yeasts, but was otherwise slightly inferior to the ITS. The nuclear ribosomal small subunit has poor species-level resolution in fungi. ITS will be formally proposed for adoption as the primary fungal barcode marker to the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, with the possibility that supplementary barcodes may be developed for particular narrowly circumscribed taxonomic groups.DNA barcoding | fungal biodiversity T he absence of a universally accepted DNA barcode for Fungi, the second most speciose eukaryotic kingdom (1, 2), is a serious limitation for multitaxon ecological and biodiversity studies. DNA barcoding uses standardized 500-to 800-bp sequences to identify species of all eukaryotic kingdoms using primers that are applicable for the broadest possible taxonomic group. Reference barcodes must be derived from expertly identified vouchers deposited in biological collections with online metadata and validated by available online sequence chromatograms. Interspecific variation should exceed intraspecific variation (the barcode gap), and barcoding is optimal when a sequence is constant and unique to one species (3, 4). Ideally, the barcode locus would be the same for all kingdoms. A region of the mitochondrial gene encoding the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) is the barcode for animals (3, 4) and the default marker adopted by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life for all groups of organisms, including fungi (5). In Oomycota, part of the kingdom Stramenopila historically studied by mycologists, the de facto barcode internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is suitable for identification, but the default CO1 marker is more reliable in a few clades of closely related species (6)...
The prevalent DNA modification in higher organisms is the methylation of cytosine to 5-methylcytosine (5mC), which is partially converted to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by the Tet (ten eleven translocation) family of dioxygenases. Despite their importance in epigenetic regulation, it is unclear how these cytosine modifications are reversed. Here, we demonstrate that 5mC and 5hmC in DNA are oxidized to 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) by Tet dioxygenases in vitro and in cultured cells. 5caC is specifically recognized and excised by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG). Depletion of TDG in mouse embyronic stem cells leads to accumulation of 5caC to a readily detectable level. These data suggest that oxidation of 5mC by Tet proteins followed by TDG-mediated base excision of 5caC constitutes a pathway for active DNA demethylation.
Coronary-artery calcification is common and progressive in young adults with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing dialysis.
The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapaThe Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project Consortium 1 Abstract:The Brassicaceae family which includes Arabidopsis thaliana, is a natural priority for reaching beyond botanical models to more deeply sample angiosperm genomic and functional diversity. Here we report the draft genome sequence and its annoation of Brassica rapa, one of the two ancestral species of oilseed rape. We modeled 41,174 protein-coding genes in the B. rapa genome. B. rapa has experienced only the second genome triplication reported to date, with its close relationship to A. thaliana providing a useful outgroup for investigating many consequences of triplication for its structural and functional evolution. The extent of gene loss (fractionation) among triplicated genome segments varies, with one copy containing a greater proportion of genes expected to have been present in its ancestor (70%) than the remaining two (46% and 36%). Both a generally rapid evolutionary rate, and specific copy number amplifications of particular gene families, may contribute to the remarkable propensity of Brassica species for the development of new morphological variants. The B. rapa genome provides a new resource for comparative and evolutionary analysis of the Brassicaceae genomes and also a platform for genetic improvement of Brassica oil and vegetable crops.2
Intense nonpharmaceutical interventions were put in place in China to stop transmission of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As transmission intensifies in other countries, the interplay between age, contact patterns, social distancing, susceptibility to infection, and COVID-19 dynamics remains unclear. To answer these questions, we analyze contact survey data for Wuhan and Shanghai before and during the outbreak and contact-tracing information from Hunan province. Daily contacts were reduced seven- to eightfold during the COVID-19 social distancing period, with most interactions restricted to the household. We find that children 0 to 14 years of age are less susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than adults 15 to 64 years of age (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 0.49), whereas individuals more than 65 years of age are more susceptible to infection (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.92). Based on these data, we built a transmission model to study the impact of social distancing and school closure on transmission. We find that social distancing alone, as implemented in China during the outbreak, is sufficient to control COVID-19. Although proactive school closures cannot interrupt transmission on their own, they can reduce peak incidence by 40 to 60% and delay the epidemic.
Historically, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) has been identified as the most abundant internal modification of messenger RNA (mRNA) in eukaryotes 1. Its mammalian function remained unknown until recently, when it was reported that thousands of mammalian mRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) show m6A modification 2,3 and that m6A demethylases are required for mammalian energy homeostasis and fertility 4,5. As yet, the identity of m6A methyltransferases (MTase) and the molecular mechanisms regulated by m6A remains unclear. Here, we show that two proteins, the putative m6A MTase, methyltransferase-like 3 (Mettl3) 6, and a related but uncharacterized protein Mettl14, function synergistically to control m6A formation in mammalian cells. Since m6A modification is involved in cell fate determination in yeast 7,8 and embryo development in plant 9,10, we knocked down Mettl3 and Mettl14, respectively, in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). The resulting cells displayed equivalent phenotypes characterized by lack of m6A RNA methylation and lost self-renewal capability. We also observed that a large number of transcripts, including many encoding developmental regulators, showed m6A methylation inversely correlated with mRNA stability and gene expression. Further analysis suggested that some of these effects were mediated through Human antigen R (HuR) and microRNA pathways. Overall our work provides first experimental evidence of mammalian m6A MTases and reveals a previously unknown gene regulatory mechanism operating in mESCs through m6A methylation. This mechanism is required to keep mESCs at their ground state and may be relevant to thousands of mRNAs and lncRNAs in various cell types.
Tolerance to self-antigens prevents the elimination of cancer by the immune system1,2. We used synthetic chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to overcome immunological tolerance and mediate tumor rejection in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Remission was induced in a subset of subjects, but most did not respond. Comprehensive assessment of patient-derived CAR T cells to identify mechanisms of therapeutic success and failure has not been explored. We performed genomic, phenotypic and functional evaluations to identify determinants of response. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that CAR T cells from complete-responding patients with CLL were enriched in memory-related genes, including IL-6/STAT3 signatures, whereas T cells from nonresponders upregulated programs involved in effector differentiation, glycolysis, exhaustion and apoptosis. Sustained remission was associated with an elevated frequency of CD27+CD45RO- CD8+ T cells before CAR T cell generation, and these lymphocytes possessed memory-like characteristics. Highly functional CAR T cells from patients produced STAT3-related cytokines, and serum IL-6 correlated with CAR T cell expansion. IL-6/STAT3 blockade diminished CAR T cell proliferation. Furthermore, a mechanistically relevant population of CD27+PD-1CD8+ CAR T cells expressing high levels of the IL-6 receptor predicts therapeutic response and is responsible for tumor control. These findings uncover new features of CAR T cell biology and underscore the potential of using pretreatment biomarkers of response to advance immunotherapies.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.