Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) have been used in a lot of industrial fields. In this paper, a review of faults and diagnosis methods of PMSM is presented. Firstly, the electrical, mechanical and magnetic faults of the permanent magnet synchronous motor are introduced. Next, common fault diagnosis methods, such as model-based fault diagnosis, different signal processing methods, and data-driven diagnostic algorithms are enumerated. The research summarized in this paper mainly includes fault performance, harmonic characteristics, different time-frequency analysis techniques, intelligent diagnosis algorithms proposed recently and so on.
Splenogonadal fusion (SGF) is a rare congenital abnormality that affects children of both genders. Very few cases of SGF have been diagnosed preoperatively. In this study, the surgical findings and laparoscopic treatment of four children with SGF associated with intra-abdominal cryptorchidism are described. Laparoscopy was demonstrated to be the only accurate exploratory procedure for the diagnosis and surgical treatment of SGF with non-palpable testis.
Using data obtained from a local tax office in China, we examine the determinants of corporate tax audits and the consequences of those audits. We find that the tax authority is more likely to select a firm for an audit when the firm has a lower effective tax rate, a higher book-tax difference, and more income-decreasing discretionary accruals. Applying a difference-in-differences research design, we find that after firms have been audited, they significantly increase their effective tax rates, reduce their book-tax differences, and reduce their income-decreasing discretionary accruals. Our study provides important insights on the determinants of the tax authority's decision on whether to initiate an audit and the impact of tax audits on both tax reporting and financial reporting.
JEL Classifications: H26; L51; M41.
Available online xxxx JEL classification: M42 G38 L22 Keywords: Audit effort Risk-based audit mode Corporate governance A B S T R A C TThis study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the risk-based mode required by the new auditing standards has significantly enhanced the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance. Since the change in audit mode, the Big Ten have demonstrated a significantly better grasp of governance risk and allocated their audit effort accordingly, relative to smaller firms. The empirical evidence indicates that auditors have adjusted their audit strategy to meet the regulations, risk-based auditing is being achieved to a degree, reasonable and effective corporate governance helps to optimize audit resource allocation, and smaller auditing firms in particular should urgently strengthen their risk-based auditing capability. Overall, our findings imply that the mandatory switch to risk-based auditing has optimized audit effort in China. Ó 2015 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of China Journal of Accounting Research. Founded by Sun Yat-sen University and City University of Hong Kong. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Aim This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of radical and conservative surgical procedures for removal of hydatid cysts in the liver of children. Methods A total of 112 pediatric patients had surgical treatment of hepatic cystic echinococcosis (CE) between January 2002 and December 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups receiving either radical (n = 26) or conservative surgery (CS) (n = 86). Patient age, gender, symptoms, preoperative radiologic investigations, type of cyst, involvement of other organs, surgical procedure performed, postoperative complications, and mean hospital stay after surgery were recorded. Results The mean surgical procedure time for radical surgery (RS) was significantly longer than CS (126.4 ± 37 vs. 90.4 ± 22.9 minutes, p < 0.001], and the days for hospitalization showed no difference (11.0 ± 2.1 vs. 11.5 ± 3.1 days, p > 0.05]. Seven patients in the CS group had 20-300 mL of bile drainage 2-4 days post-operation and two patients developed a postoperative cavitary abscess; five patients in the RS group and one patient in the CS group developed a hydrothorax on the fifth day postoperatively. Follow-up of all patients showed that the majority had recovered well except for 3 cases who developed recurrences due to cysts ruptured accidently before surgery. There were no recurrences or biliary complications in the RS group. Conclusion CS is an effective method for liver CE cyst removal and RS is suitable for hepatic cysts in less risk position in pediatric patients.
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