ABSTRACT. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a well-established cause of cervical cancer. While many studies have been performed so far on HPV viral biology, mode of infection and prevention measures, scanty information is available on lesion sites of infected women and the incidence of viral types at specific locations. We looked for a possible relationship between the most common viral types (HPVs 16, 18, 31, 33) found in Recife, PE, Brazil, and lesion sites. We examined 396 HPV-positive women at the Gynecological Unit of the IMIP at Recife; 288 women were positive for HPV 16, 18, 31, or 33, present as Relationship of HPVs 16, 18, 31, and 33 and lesion sites a single-virus type or as co-infection. HPV 16 was the most frequent virus type found in the vulva, vagina, uterine cervix-vagina, and uterine cervix. HPV 31 was the second prevalent virus type in vulva, vagina, uterine cervix-vagina, uterine cervix, and mole. HPVs 18 and 33 were present with similar frequencies in the mole-vulva region. Among the co-infections, HPV 16/18 and HPV16/31 were the most frequent in our study group, followed by HPV 16/33.
Objetivos: determinar os principais fatores associados à ocorrência de infecção do sítio cirúrgico em pacientes submetidas a histerectomia total abdominal (HTA) no Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco (IMIP). Métodos: realizou-se um estudo de corte transversal incluindo todas as pacientes submetidas a histerectomia total abdominal no IMIP no período de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 1998, desde que tivessem retornado no 7º e no 30º dia pós-operatório para controle de infecção (n = 414). A freqüência de infecção do sítio cirúrgico (definida pelos critérios do CDC, 1998) foi de 10% (42 casos). Calculou-se o risco de prevalência (RP) de infecção do sítio cirúrgico e seu intervalo de confiança (IC) a 95% para as seguintes variáveis: idade, obesidade, hipertensão, diabetes, doença maligna, tipo de incisão, tempo cirúrgico e antibioticoprofilaxia. Realizou-se análise de regressão logística múltipla para determinação do risco ajustado de infecção. Resultados: encontrou-se aumento significativo do risco de infecção do sítio cirúrgico para as seguintes variáveis: idade >60 anos
In Brazil, the evaluation that is currently practiced in schools has been promoting the failure of the poorest, who eventually interrupt their studies, convinced of their incompetence. This article shows that, in contrast, hundreds of schools across the country adopt a cooperative dialogical pedagogy of evaluation. As part of an approach based on Freirean principles, the Telessala Methodology teaches students who are discriminated against by the traditional school, that they are smart and creative, with power to change their lives and the world. This chapter describes the Telessala Methodology and how it manifests the principles of Freirean pedagogy with implications for evaluation.
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