This study investigates the diversity of fungal endophytes associated with several varieties of grapevines with differing modes of cultivation in the Madrid region (central Spain). Our goal is to screen for and identify new fungal biocontrol agents against vine diseases, especially those associated with young plants produced in nurseries. A total of 500 fungal strains representing 68 taxa from six locations were isolated and characterised. Differences regarding cultivar and plant part processed were analysed in terms of composition and relative abundance of species. Some of the more frequently isolated strains represented were Acremonium, Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Botryotinia, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Gibberella, Nectria, Penicillium, Phoma and Trichoderma species. Botryosphaeria species and Phomopsis viticola were also frequently isolated and may be vine pathogens. Several species of Acremonium, Phoma (P. glomerata) and Chaetomium showed promising antagonistic activity at the laboratory scale.
Members of the form genus Rhizoctonia D.C. are considered as a complex mixture of filamentous fungi, having in common the possession of a non-spored imperfect state, usually referred to as the Rhizoctonia anamorph. The group includes several of the most devastating crop pathogens like Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk (anamorph = Rhizoctonia solani Kühn), the majority of orchid mycorrhizal symbionts (mainly belonging to genus Ceratobasidium D.P. Rogers) and a collection of saprotrophic organisms of different systematic placement. The Rhizoctonia anamorph is characterized by several common features present among members of the entire Rhizoctonia species complex. Taxa from the group have been rearranged into several groups of higher fungi, including both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, and split into several genera, employing criteria such as the analysis and ultrastructural comparison of septal apparatus. Until very recently, classification for some of the groups within the complex has been exclusively based on criteria such as hyphal anastomosis, since other types of diagnostic features are usually scarce in these fungi. Phytopathological studies in the complex have represented the major contingent of contributions in the group, especially in the case of R. solani. Some members of the complex have been reported to be protective isolates against pathogenic members of Rhizoctonia and some other fungal pathogens. This review focuses on the knowledge of several aspects of the species of Rhizcotonia s. lato, such as its current taxonomic placement, the biology and systematics of some groups of the complex, and a revision of the methodologies employed in studying it.Additional key words: Basidiomycetes, biocontrol, Ceratobasidiaceae, Ceratobasidium, fungal diseases, methodology, taxonomy, Thanatephorus. Resumen Biología y Sistemática del género forma RhizoctoniaLos miembros del género forma Rhizoctonia D.C. son considerados como un complejo de hongos filamentosos, presentando en común una fase asexual no productora de esporas, denominada anamorfo tipo Rhizoctonia. El grupo incluye algunos importantes patógenos como Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk (anamorfo=Rhizoctonia solani Kühn), la mayoría de especies micorrícicas de orquídeas (principalmente del género Ceratobasidium D.P. Rogers), y algunos taxones de posición taxonómica variada. El anamorfo tipo Rhizoctonia es definido por una serie de características, presentes y comunes en todos los taxones del complejo. Los taxones del grupo han sido distribuidos entre varios grupos de hongos, incluyendo Ascomicetes y Basidiomicetes, y reubicados en varios géneros de ambas clases, empleando criterios de clasificación tales como el análisis y comparación de la ultraestructura del aparato septal. Habitualmente, la clasificación en algunos de los grupos del complejo ha estado basada en la aplicación de criterios tales como la anastomosis hifal, debido a que en este tipo de hongos es escasa la presencia de un número aceptable de caracteres diagnósticos. Los trabajos ...
This fungus can survive for many years in soil as mycelium, and also by producing sclerotia, which makes the management of the disease using conventional means very difficult. Integrated pest management has been most successful; it includes timely fungicide applications, crop rotation and attention to soil moisture levels. Recent developments in biocontrol may provide other tools to control R. solani in tobacco.
Abstract:The order Diatrypales (Ascomycota) contains one single family, the Diatrypaceae. To obtain insight in the phylogenetic relationships within this family, the complete sequences of the ITS region (ITS1, 5.8S rRNA gene and ITS2) of 53 isolates from the five main genera in the family (Diatrype, Diatrypella, Cryptosphaeria, Eutypa and Eutypella) were determined and aligned for phylogenetic reconstruction. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of tandem repeated motifs 11 nucleotides-long, placed in homologous positions along the ITS1 region. Parsimony analysis established the existence of nine monophyletic groups and one branch with a single isolate of Eutypella quaternata. The phylogenetic relationships established by parsimony analysis did not correlate well with classical taxonomic schemes. None of the five genera included in this study was found to be monophyletic. The genera Diatrype, Eutypa and Cryptosphaeria each were divided into two groups. Isolates of Diatrype flavovirens appeared in a clade separated from the one that grouped Diatrype disciformis and the rest of Diatrype species. The Eutypa strains appeared distributed into two clades, one grouping Eutypa lata and related species (Eutypa armeniacae, Eutypa laevata, Eutypa petrakii), and anothAccepted for publication September 22, 2003. 1 Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com er with the remaining species of the genus. Eutypella (excluding Eutypella quaternaria) appeared as an unstable monophyletic group, which was lost when the sequence alignment was subjected to neighbor-joining analysis. The genus Diatrypella was not associated with any monophyletic group, suggesting that the multisporate asci character has appeared several times during the evolution of the group. Overall, our study suggests the need to revise many of the concepts usually applied to the classification of members of the family.
In a context in which the incidence and severity of grapevine fungal diseases is increasing as a result of both climate change and modern management culture practices, reducing the excessive use of phytosanitary products in viticulture represents a major challenge. Specifically, grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs), caused by several complexes of wood decay or xylem-inhabiting fungi, pose a major challenge to vineyard sustainability. In this study, the efficacy of chitosan oligomers (COS)–amino acid conjugate complexes against three fungal species belonging to the Botryosphaeriaceae family (Neofusicoccum parvum, Diplodia seriata, and Botryosphaeria dothidea) was investigated both in vitro and in planta. In vitro tests led to EC50 and EC90 effective concentrations in the 254.6−448.5 and 672.1−1498.5 µg·mL−1 range, respectively, depending on the amino acid involved in the conjugate complex (viz. cysteine, glycine, proline or tyrosine) and on the pathogen assayed. A synergistic effect between COS and the amino acids was observed against D. seriata and B. dothidea (synergy factors of up to 2.5 and 2.8, respectively, according to Wadley’s method). The formulations based on COS and on the conjugate complex that showed the best inhibition rates, COS−tyrosine, were further investigated in a greenhouse trial on grafted vines of two varieties (”Tempranillo” on 775P and “Garnacha” on 110R rootstock), artificially inoculated with the mentioned three Botryosphaeriaceae species. The in planta bioassay revealed that the chosen formulations induced a significant decrease in disease severity against N. parvum and B. dothidea. In summary, the reported conjugate complexes may be promising enough to be worthy of additional examination in larger field trials.
The use of nanocarriers (NCs), i.e., nanomaterials capable of encapsulating drugs and releasing them selectively, is an emerging field in agriculture. In this study, the synthesis, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo testing of biodegradable NCs loaded with natural bioactive products was investigated for the control of certain phytopathogens responsible for wood degradation. In particular, NCs based on methacrylated lignin and chitosan oligomers, loaded with extracts from Rubia tinctorum, Silybum marianum, Equisetum arvense, and Urtica dioica, were first assayed in vitro against Neofusicoccum parvum, an aggressive fungus that causes cankers and diebacks in numerous woody hosts around the world. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the most effective treatment was further explored against another fungal pathogen and two bacteria related to trunk diseases: Diplodia seriata, Xylophilus ampelinus, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, respectively. Subsequently, it was evaluated in field conditions, in which it was applied by endotherapy for the control of grapevine trunk diseases. In the in vitro mycelial growth inhibition tests, the NCs loaded with R. tinctorum resulted in EC90 concentrations of 65.8 and 91.0 μg·mL−1 against N. parvum and D. seriata, respectively. Concerning their antibacterial activity, a minimum inhibitory concentration of 37.5 μg·mL−1 was obtained for this treatment against both phytopathogens. Upon application via endotherapy on 20-year-old grapevines with clear esca and Botryosphaeria decay symptoms, no phytotoxicity effects were observed (according to SPAD and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements) and the sugar content of the grape juice was not affected either. Nonetheless, the treatment led to a noticeable decrease in foliar symptoms as well as a higher yield in the treated arms as compared to the control arms (3177 vs. 1932 g/arm), suggestive of high efficacy. Given the advantages in terms of controlled release and antimicrobial product savings, these biodegradable NCs loaded with natural extracts may deserve further research in large-scale field tests.
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