Despite the fact that we live in an era of advanced technology and innovation, infectious diseases, like malaria, continue to be one of the greatest health challenges worldwide. The main drawbacks of conventional malaria chemotherapy are the development of multiple drug resistance and the non-specific targeting to intracellular parasites, resulting in high dose requirements and subsequent intolerable toxicity. Nanosized carriers have been receiving special attention with the aim of minimizing the side effects of drug therapy, such as poor bioavailability and the selectivity of drugs. Several nanosized delivery systems have already proved their effectiveness in animal models for the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria. A number of strategies to deliver antimalarials using nanocarriers and the mechanisms that facilitate their targeting to Plasmodium spp.-infected cells are discussed in this review. Taking into account the peculiarities of malaria parasites, the focus is placed particularly on lipid-based (e.g., liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and nano and microemulsions) and polymer-based nanocarriers (nanocapsules and nanospheres). This review emphasizes the main requirements for developing new nanotechnology-based carriers as a promising choice in malaria treatment, especially in the case of severe cerebral malaria.
Purpose:To evaluate and characterize the wound healing process profile induced by allantoin incorporated in soft lotion oil/water emulsion using the planimetric and histological methods. Methods: Female Wistar rats (n=60) were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: (C) control group-without treatment; (E) group treated with soft lotion O/W emulsion excipients; (EA) group treated with soft lotion O/W emulsion containing allantoin 5%. The emulsions either containing or not allantoin were topically administered for 14 days and the wound area was evaluated by planimetry and by qualitative and quantitative histological analysis of open wound model. Results:The data which were obtained and analyzed innovate by demonstrating, qualitatively and quantitatively, by histological analysis, the profile of healing process induced by allantoin. The results suggest that the wound healing mechanism induced by allantoin occurs via the regulation of inflammatory response and stimulus to fibroblastic proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis. Conclusion: This work show, for the first time, the histological wound healing profile induced by allantoin in rats and demonstrated that it is able to ameliorate and fasten the reestablishment of the normal skin. Key words: Wound Healing. Allantoin. Histology. Animal Experimentation. Rats. RESUMOObjetivo: Avaliar e caracterizar o perfil cicatricial induzido pela alantoína incorporada em uma emulsão óleo/água, sob os aspectos planimétrico e histológico. Métodos: Ratos Wistar fêmeas (n=60) foram agrupados aleatoriamente em três grupos experimentais grupo controle -sem tratamento (C); grupo tratado com emulsão pura (E); grupo tratado com emulsão contendo 5% de alantoína (EA). As emulsões contendo ou não alantoína foram administradas topicamente durante 14 dias e a área da ferida foi avaliada por planimetria e por análise histológica qualitativa e quantitativa em modelo de ferida aberta. Resultados: Na análise planimétrica não foi observado diferenças significativas entre os grupos experimentais. Os resultados da análise histológica sugerem que o mecanismo de cicatrização induzido pela alantoína ocorre via controle da resposta inflamatória e estímulos à proliferação fibroblástica e síntese de matrix extracelular de maneira mais intensa e rapidamente em relação aos grupos controles. Conclusão: Este trabalho mostra pela primeira vez o perfil histológico de cicatrização induzido pela alantoína em ratos, demonstrando ser capaz de melhorar e acelerar o processo de reconstituição da pele. Descritores: Cicatrização de Feridas. Alantoína. Histologia. Experimentação Animal. Ratos.
The interactions of naked and surface-modified poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA) nanocapsules (NC), where polyethyleneglycol (PEG) was adsorbed or covalently attached, have been studied with a macrophage-like cell line. The fluorescent oil marker, DiD, was successfully encapsulated in NCs in order to follow their interactions with cells. The cell-associated fluorescence obtained with PEG-PLA NC was about 3- to 13-fold lower than that obtained with naked-PLA NC. The effects of PEG chain length, its content as a percentage of total polymer and NC concentration in the culture medium were evaluated. PEG-PLA NC showed dramatically reduced fluorescence association with cells during an 18 h incubation compared with naked-PLA NC, showing that covalent attachment of PEG is important for the persistence of low uptake. The best results in reducing cell-associated fluorescence were obtained with a surface-modified PEG-PLA NC bearing a chain with 20000 MW. Increasing the percentage of PEG produced a reduction in marker association for a given PEG chain length. Moreover, when the PEG-containing poloxamer was simply adsorbed, marker association was dependent on the extent of dilution and the type of serum in the culture medium. Serum proteins, especially immunoglobulins, increased cell-associated fluorescence for PEG-adsorbed NC, but had very little effect on PEG-PLA NC. Marker association was only partially inhibited in the presence of cytochalasin B. The mechanisms of cell-NC interaction depended on the characteristics of the NC surface in each formulation. When the NC was physically separated from cells no diffusion of fluorescent marker in aqueous medium occurred. Nevertheless, collision-mediated transfer of DiD from NC to J774 cells was a non-negligible route of marker transfer, mainly for naked NC. However, this collision-mediated transfer was reduced for the PEG-PLA NC probably due to the restricted contact between NC and cells afforded by PEG steric hindrance at the surface.
dThe drugs available for Chagas disease treatment are toxic and ineffective. We studied the in vivo activity of a new drug, lychnopholide (LYC). LYC was loaded in nanocapsules (NC), and its effects were compared to free LYC and benznidazole against Trypanosoma cruzi. Infected mice were treated in the acute phase at 2.0 mg/kg/day with free LYC, LYC-poly--caprolactone NC (LYC-PCL), and LYC-poly(lactic acid)-co-polyethylene glycol NC (LYC-PLA-PEG) or at 50 mg/kg/day with benznidazole solution by the intravenous route. Animals infected with the CL strain, treated 24 h after infection for 10 days, evaluated by hemoculture, PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay exhibited a 50% parasitological cure when treated with LYC-PCL NC and 100% cure when treated with benznidazole, but 100% of the animals treated during the prepatent period for 20 days with these formulations or LYC-PLA-PEG NC were cured. In animals with the Y strain treated 24 h after infection for 10 days, only mice treated by LYC-PCL NC were cured, but animals treated in the prepatent period for 20 days exhibited 100, 75, and 62.5% cure when treated with LYC-PLA-PEG NC, benznidazole, and LYC-PCL NC, respectively. Free LYC reduced the parasitemia and improved mice survival, but no mice were cured. LYC-loaded NC showed higher cure rates, reduced parasitemia, and increased survival when used in doses 2five times lower than those used for benznidazole. This study confirms that LYC is a potential new treatment for Chagas disease. Furthermore, the long-circulating property of PLA-PEG NC and its ability to improve LYC efficacy showed that this formulation is more effective in reaching the parasite in vivo.
The efficacy and pharmacokinetics of a new parenteral formulation of halofantrine were studied in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. The formulation consisted of nanocapsules with an oily core, prepared from either poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) homopolymer or PLA that was surface modified with grafted polyethylene glycol chains. They were compared with a previously described intravenous halofantrine preparation. No toxic effects were observed with halofantrine in form of nanocapsules after intravenous administration for doses of up to 100 mg/kg, whereas the solubilized form in polyethylene glycol-dimethylacetamide was toxic at this dose. The halofantrine-loaded nanocapsules showed activity that was similar to or better than that of the solution in the 4-day test and as a single dose in severely infected mice, with only minimal differences between the two nanocapsule formulations. Halofantrine pharmacokinetics were determined in parallel with parasite development in severely infected mice. Nanocapsules increased the area under the curve for halofantrine in plasma more than sixfold compared with the solution throughout the experimental period of 70 h. Furthermore, nanocapsules induced a significantly faster control of parasite development than the solution in the first 48 h posttreatment. While the parasitemia fell more rapidly with PLA nanocapsules, the effect was more sustained with the surface-modified ones. This is consistent with surface-modified nanocapsules remaining longer in the circulation. These results suggest that nanocapsule formulations could provide a more favorable halofantrine profile in the plasma and reduce the intravenous dose necessary and therefore the toxicity, thus suggesting the use of halofantrine by a parenteral route in severe malaria.
The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the reduction in halofantrine (Hf) toxicity, an antimalarial drug frequently associated with QT interval prolongation in electrocardiogram, by its entrapment in poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanocapsules (NC). The acute lethal dose (LD(100)) of Hf.HCl experimentally observed was 200 mg/kg whereas the calculated LD(50) was 154 mg/kg. In contrast, the LD(100) for Hf-NC was 300 mg/kg with a longer mean time to death than Hf.HCl. The calculated LD(50) was 249 mg/kg for Hf-NC. The Hf entrapped in PCL NC presented a greater efficacy than PLA-PEG NC and than Hf solution in P. berghei-infected mice at 1 mg/kg. The cardiovascular parameters, ECG and arterial blood pressure, were evaluated in anaesthetized Wistar rats after the IV administration of a single, especially high dose (100 and 150 mg/kg) of halofantrine base loaded-nanocapsules (Hf-NC) or halofantrine chlorhydrate (Hf.HCl) solution. It was observed that Hf solution caused prolongation of the QT and PR intervals of the ECG; however, this effect was significantly (P<0.001) reduced when Hf was administered entrapped in nanocapsules. The treatment with Hf.HCl induced a pronounced bradycardia and severe hypotension leading to death. The effect of Hf-NC upon heart rate was reduced from 58 to 75% for 100 and 150 mg/kg, respectively, when compared with Hf.HCl solution. These findings show that the encapsulation of halofantrine reduces the QT interval prolongation of ECG in rats and suggest that a modification of drug distribution was possible by using nanocapsules. Hf encapsulation was the main factor responsible for the significant reduction in cardiac toxicity observed.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.