Gallic acid is an active phenolic acid widely distributed in plants, and there is compelling evidence to prove its anti-inflammatory effects. NLRP3 inflammasome dysregulation is closely linked to many inflammatory diseases. However, how gallic acid affects the NLRP3 inflammasome remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the effects of gallic acid on the NLRP3 inflammasome and pyroptosis, as well as its effect on gouty arthritis in mice. The results showed that gallic acid inhibited lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and pyroptosis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed and ATP-, nigericin-, or monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-stimulated macrophages. Additionally, gallic acid blocked NLRP3 inflammasome activation and inhibited the subsequent activation of caspase-1 and secretion of IL-1β. Gallic acid exerted its inhibitory effect by blocking NLRP3-NEK7 interaction and ASC oligomerization, thereby limiting inflammasome assembly. Moreover, gallic acid promoted the expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and reduced the production of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS). Importantly, the inhibitory effect of gallic acid could be reversed by treatment with the Nrf2 inhibitor ML385. NRF2 siRNA also abolished the inhibitory effect of gallic acid on IL-1β secretion. The results further showed that gallic acid could mitigate MSU-induced joint swelling and inhibit IL-1β and caspase 1 (p20) production in mice. Moreover, gallic acid could moderate MSU-induced macrophages and neutrophils migration into joint synovitis. In summary, we found that gallic acid suppresses ROS generation, thereby limiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis dependent on Nrf2 signaling, suggesting that gallic acid possesses therapeutic potential for the treatment of gouty arthritis.
The present systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to evaluate the effects of acupuncture in women with breast cancer (BC), focusing on patient-reported outcomes (PROs).MethodsA comprehensive literature search was carried out for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting PROs in BC patients with treatment-related symptoms after undergoing acupuncture for at least four weeks. Literature screening, data extraction, and risk bias assessment were independently carried out by two researchers.ResultsOut of the 2, 524 identified studies, 29 studies representing 33 articles were included in this meta-analysis. At the end of treatment (EOT), the acupuncture patients’ quality of life (QoL) was measured by the QLQ-C30 QoL subscale, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Endocrine Symptoms (FACT-ES), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–General/Breast (FACT-G/B), and the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL), which depicted a significant improvement. The use of acupuncture in BC patients lead to a considerable reduction in the scores of all subscales of the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) measuring pain. Moreover, patients treated with acupuncture were more likely to experience improvements in hot flashes scores, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and anxiety compared to those in the control group, while the improvements in depression were comparable across both groups. Long-term follow-up results were similar to the EOT results.ConclusionsCurrent evidence suggests that acupuncture might improve BC treatment-related symptoms measured with PROs including QoL, pain, fatigue, hot flashes, sleep disturbance and anxiety. However, a number of included studies report limited amounts of certain subgroup settings, thus more rigorous, well-designed and larger RCTs are needed to confirm our results.
Corilagin, a gallotannin, shows excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The NLRP3 inflammasome dysfunction has been implicated in a variety of inflammation diseases. However, it remains unclear how corilagin regulates the NLRP3 inflammasome to relieve gouty arthritis. In this study, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and then incubated with NLRP3 inflammasome agonists, such as adenine nucleoside triphosphate (ATP), nigericin, and monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. The MSU crystals were intra-articular injected to induce acute gouty arthritis. Here we showed that corilagin reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) secretion and the proportion of propidium iodide- (PI-)stained cells. Corilagin suppressed the expression of N-terminal of the pyroptosis executive protein gasdermin D (GSDMD-NT). Corilagin restricted caspase-1 p20 and interleukin (IL)-1β release. Meanwhile, corilagin attenuated ASC oligomerization and speck formation. Our findings confirmed that corilagin diminished NLRP3 inflammasome activation and macrophage pyroptosis. We further discovered that corilagin limited the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and prevented the interaction between TXNIP and NLRP3, but ROS activator imiquimod could antagonize the inhibitory function of corilagin on NLRP3 inflammasome and macrophage pyroptosis. Additionally, corilagin ameliorated MSU crystals induced joint swelling, inhibited IL-1β production, and abated macrophage and neutrophil migration into the joint capsule. Collectively, these results demonstrated that corilagin suppressed the ROS/TXNIP/NLRP3 pathway to repress inflammasome activation and pyroptosis and suggest its potential antioxidative role in alleviating NLRP3-dependent gouty arthritis.
Background: Neuroinflammation involving the central nervous system (CNS), such as depression, is associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer and cancer-specific mortality due to breast cancer. It is of great significance to learn about the regulatory process of CNS in breast cancer progression.Methods: We established a depressive MMTV-PyVT mouse model. The expression levels of neurotransmitters in the serum of depression animal models were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Changes of the microglia cells in the mice's brains were evaluated by immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Breast cancer progression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. To further investigate the mechanism by which ant-depressant drugs disrupt breast cancer progression, protein sequencing and network pharmacology were applied to identify related targets. Furthermore, we used conditioned medium from BV-2 microglia to culture breast cancer cells and treated the cells with quercetin at different concentrations; cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay.Results: Our results show a possible regulatory target between neuroinflammation in the CNS and development of breast cancer, along with the reversal effect of quercetin on breast cancer progression.Conclusions: Chronic stress may be an indicator of breast cancer and that quercetin could be an effective treatment for breast cancer patients with chronic stress.
Although paclitaxel is widely used in cancer treatment, severe side effects and drug resistance limit its clinical use. 10gingerol (10-G) is a natural compound isolated from ginger, which displays anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties. However, the chemotherapy-sensitization effect of 10-G on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has not been fully clarified. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of 10-G on the paclitaxel sensitivity in TNBC, and its underlying mechanism. Methods: The study was determined through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Cell viability and proliferation were detected by cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) and colony formation. To detect cell apoptosis, flow cytometry and TUNEL were used. The expression of proteins was detected by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The molecular docking and gene knockout were corroborated by interactions between 10-G and adrenoceptor Beta 2 (ADRB2). The body weight of mice, histopathology and organs (kidney and spleen) coefficients were used to monitor the drug toxicities. Results: In vitro, 10-G increased the sensitivity of TNBC cells to paclitaxel, and could synergistically promote the apoptosis of TNBC cells induced by paclitaxel. In combination with molecular docking and lentivirus knockdown studies, ADRB2 was identified as a 10-G binding protein. 10-G inhibited ADRB2 by binding to the active site of ADRB2. Knockdown of ADRB2 reduces the proliferation activity of TNBC cells but also attenuates the sensitizing effects of 10-G to paclitaxel. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry showed that 10-G played an anti-proliferation and chemotherapy-sensitizing role by inhibiting the ADRB2/ERK signal. Toxicity evaluation showed that 10-G would not increase hepatorenal toxicity with paclitaxel. Conclusion: This data suggests that 10-G may be used as a new chemotherapeutic synergist in combination with paclitaxel to enhance anticancer activity. The potential value of ADRB2 as a target for improving chemotherapy sensitivity was also emphasized.
e15069 Background: Breast cancer has overtaken lung cancer as the most diagnosed cancer. Despite conventional treatment, metastases occur in 20-30% of patients, resulting in death. This study aims to screen of effective drugs by metastatic patient-derived organoid and the potential molecular mechanism. Methods: Breast Cancer patient-derived organoid (PDO) model was established from the patient who have multiple drug resistance, multiple visceral and contralateral breast metastases. The organoid morphologies was tested by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Then, pharmacological activity assay of 2370 natural product monomer (from Selleck) was performed with organoids. we modified the structure of harmine(HM) and screened the best active drugs. Cell proliferation assay and wound healing assay were used to detect LN435a anticancer activity in vitro. Orthotopic, Metastatic Xenograft and Patient-Derived tumor Xenograft(PDX) model of Breast Cancer were used to detect LN435a anticancer activity in vivo. In order to explore the anti-cancer target of LN435a, we used RNA transcriptome and proteomics sequencing. To further validate anti-cancer targets,TGFβ receptor 1 (TGFβR1), we used real-time quantitative qPCR, western blot, lentiviral packing and biolayer interferometry assay. To investigate whether LN435a inhabition of EMT and stem cell markers, we performed flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and fluorescence. Results: We observe that organoid morphologies typically matched the histopathology, hormone receptor status, and HER2 status of the original tumor. In the first anti-cancer drug screening, HM showes the best effect on PDO. Because HM contains β-carbine alkaloids as the structural units, we designe a series of active drugs based on this and did anticancer screening. We find LN435a as one of the lead compounds exerting anti-metastatic activity in the nanomolar range in PDO and breast cancer cells. Proteomic and biochemical studies identify TGFβR1 as the direct target of LN435a. And then it inhibits EMT and stem cell markers. In parallel, loss of TGFβR1 or pharmacological inhibition of TGFβR1 by LN435a reduces breast cancer extravasation into the lung in an experimental metastasis mouse model, which reveals an essential role of TGFβR1 in breast cancer progression. Conclusions: Altogether, LN435a is a novel inhibitor of promising anti-tumor effects on breast cancer that works by blocking TGFβ signaling pathways.
Background: Recent advances in the field of cancer immunotherapy have increased demand for reliable preclinical models to inform patient selection and rational drug combination strategies. The development of the bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) mouse may provide the opportunity to study the complex interactions of human tumor and host immune systems in vivo. Other models are limited by the rapid onset of graft versus host disease (GVHD) and a lack of orderly maturation and trafficking of human T and B cells. In BLT mice, implantation of human fetal liver and thymus fragments beneath the kidney capsule of NSG (NOD/SCID/IL-2RΥ-/-) mice followed by engraftment of matched ex vivoexpanded CD34+ cells supports the production of an almost complete human immune system. In this study, we used this model to assess the efficacy of the anti-PD-1 therapeutic antibody, nivolumab, in combination with targeted therapeutics in specific breast cancer sub-types. Materials and Methods: For triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), the activity of nivolumab was assessed in combination with the PARP1/2 inhibitor, talazoparib, in humanized BLT mice. Xenografts were established by subcutaneous injection of 5.0x106MDA-231 (TNBC) cells. Mice (n=5) were randomized into treatment groups as follows; 1) Vehicle control (PBS), 2) nivolumab (10mg/kg QW), 3) talazoparib (0.33mg/kg Q5/2D) and 4) nivolumab+talazoparib. After 21 days of treatment, tumor tissue, serum and PBMCs were collected for biomarker analysis. Results: Successful reconstitution of mature human T and B cells was confirmed in BLT mice 12-weeks post engraftment of donor tissue and CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. MDA-231 cells injected subcutaneously into the flank of these mice formed palpable tumors (150-200mm3) within 9 days of injection. For vehicle control treated mice, tumors grew (2.5-fold) throughout the 21-day study. Single agent nivolumab induced significant tumor growth inhibition (TGI) relative to vehicle control treated mice at Day 21. Single agent talazoparib also induced comparable levels of TGI as did the combination of nivolumab plus talazoparib. Nivolumab treated mice continued to gain weight throughout the study without overt signs of toxicity. Reversible weight loss was observed in the talazoparib and combination treated arms. Overt signs of GVHD were not observed in any of these animals. Preliminary tissue analysis identified high levels of cell surface PD-L1 protein in control treated MDA-231 xenografts. Further analysis of the treated tumors will provide valuable insight into the mechanism of action of this class of molecule. We are establishing xenograft models of hormone receptor (ER+) positive breast cancer to measure the activity of nivolumab+/-CDK4/6-inhibition in humanized BLT mice and these data will also be presented. Discussion: The data presented here highlight the potential of the PD-1 antibody nivolumab to have activity in TNBC. Furthermore, these findings illustrate the potential of the humanized BLT-mouse to model responses to immune check-point in the preclinical setting. Expanded use of this model may help to identify response biomarkers and inform design of combination therapies using immune oncology molecules and approved targeted therapies. Citation Format: O'Brien NA, Luo T, Ayala R, Salgar S, Conklin D, McDermott M, Kitchen S, Rezek V, Horak C, Dugan U, Slamon DJ. Activity of nivolumab alone or in combination with targeted therapies in a humanized BLT-mouse model of human breast cancer [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; 2018 Dec 4-8; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2019;79(4 Suppl):Abstract nr P4-06-07.
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