Este trabalho visou realizar um levantamento bibliográfico dos registros etnobotânicos, químicos e farmacológicos de espécies de Apocynaceae ocorrentes em diversas regiões do Brasil. Foi feito um compilamento dos dados organizados em ordem alfabética de espécies, seguidas do nome popular, categoria de uso, parte usada, forma de uso, atividade farmacológica, composição química e distribuição geográfica. Identificou-se 78 espécies distribuídas em 27 gêneros, onde Hancornia speciosa Gomes foi a mais citada. A categoria de uso medicinal foi a mais representativa com 61 indicações e a casca foi à parte mais utilizada das plantas com 29 citações. Poucos estudos farmacológicos e químicos foram realizados, havendo a necessidade de investimento nessas áreas para comprovações dos usos tradicionais.
Context:Croton sp. are plants with a well-reported antimicrobial activity. Croton limae A.P. Gomes, M.F. Sales P.E. Berry (Euphorbiaceae), known as ‘marmeleiro-prateado’, is commonly used to manage abdominal pain in Brazil.Objective: This work evaluates the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of C. limae leaves (EOCL).Materials and methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the modulation of the antibiotic activity were determined using a microdilution method. The concentration of EOCL ranged between 512 and 8 μg/mL. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans strains were used in the MIC and modulation assays. The antibiotics, amikacin, gentamicin and neomycin, and the antifungals, amphotericin B, benzoylmetronidazole and nystatin, were used in concentrations ranging between 2500 and 2.5 μg/mL. The phytochemical analysis of the EOCL was performed through gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS).Results: Only Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by a clinically relevant concentration of EOCL (MIC 512 μg/mL). Synergism between the EOCL and amikacin against S. aureus (9.76 μg/mL) and E. coli (39.062 μg/mL); neomycin against E. coli (2.44 μg/mL); and benzoylmetronidazole against C. krusei (256 μg/mL) were observed. The GC/MS analysis identified cedrol, eucalyptol and α-pinene as the main compounds of EOCL.Conclusion: EOCL inhibited the growth of S. aureus and potentiated the antibiotic and antifungal effects of drugs against all bacterial and Candida strains, respectively.
The allelopathic activity and chemical composition of the essential oil of Croton limae A. P. S. Gomes, M. F. Sales & P. E. Berry (marmeleiro-prateado) have been evaluated in this study. The essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation. A completely randomized design was used to test the influence of the essential oil from fresh leaves of C. limae in concentrations of 0.10%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 1.25%, 2.50%, 3.75%, and 5% on the germination and growth of Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. (tomato) seeds by indirect contact, with a control using water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Each treatment consisted of five replicates using twenty seeds in each one. The chemical analysis of the essential oil was carried out using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The analysis showed the occurrence of 14 chemical compounds, the majority of which were cedrol (28.4%), eucalyptol (17.4%) and α-pinene (13.8). The C. limae essential oil inhibited germination of the tomato seeds at concentrations of 2.50% and upwards and it affected the caulicles and radicles of tomatoes at all concentrations tested. The tests proved that C. limae presents phytotoxic activities.
The present study aims to test the Acritopappus confertus (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. essential oil allelopathic potential on the germination and inital development of Cenchrus echinatus L. and Lactuca sativa L. seedlings, in addition to identifying and quantifying chemical constituents. The chemical composition analysis was performed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). For the allelopathic assays, the essential oil was emulsified with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in a 1:1 ratio, and diluted in distilled water to obtain 0.001, 0.01, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1% c. The control consisted of 1% aqueous DMSO solution.Treatments were performed in five repetition with 20 seeds each. The pH of the oils were measured and adjusted to a scale of 6 to 7. Assays were conducted in a germination chamber at 25 °C with a 12h photoperiod. Seed germination, Germination Speed Index (GSI), caulicle and radicle length were analyzed. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test (p<0.05), through the ASSISTAT. The constituents mycene, β-pinene and limonene stood out the most in chemical analysis. The essential oil did not influence C. echinatus and L. sativa seed germination, however it influenced GSI and seedling development. The effects observed herein may be due to chemical constituents found in the studied species, which may act in an isolated or combined manner.
ResumoAlguns leitores de Nietzsche podem admitir certa dificuldade em reconhecer os limites entre a crítica, a genealogia e o filosofar com o martelo. Tais limites existem e podem ser delineados se buscarmos o elemento no qual cada uma dessas investidas atua. Este artigo procura elaborar a ideia de que a noção nietzschiana de crítica envolve o desprezo afirmativo, o riso e a zombaria. Ligada, portanto, a uma condição valorativa, a crítica é mais ofensiva, exigente e assumidamente tendenciosa do que se poderia conceber a partir da tradição kantiana.AbstractSome readers of Nietzsche may admit some difficulty in recognizing the boundaries between criticism, genealogy, and philosophizing with the hammer. However, such limits exist if one seek the element that produces each one. This article tries to elaborate the idea that the affirmative contempt, laughter, mockery, for Nietzsche, defines the critic. Related, therefore, to an evaluative (and physiological) condition, criticism is more virulent, offensive, demanding and biased than one might think from a Kantian tradition.
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