In Bos taurus cattle, antimullerian hormone (AMH) has been demonstrated to have a high degree of correlation with ovarian antral follicle count and the number of healthy follicles and oocytes. To document the correlation between the plasma concentration of AMH and follicular number in Bos indicus and Bos taurus heifers, Nelore (Bos indicus, n = 16) and Holstein heifers (Bos taurus, n = 16) had their ovarian follicular waves synchronized. After synchronization, ovarian antral follicular population (AFP) was evaluated three times at 60-day (d) intervals (T-120 d, 120 days before plasma AMH determination; T-60 d, 60 days before; and T0, at the time of plasma AMH determination). The plasma AMH concentration was positively correlated with the number of ovarian follicles on the day of the follicular wave emergence in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers at each evaluation time (p < 0.05). The AFP was higher in Bos indicus (Nelore) than in Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers (p < 0.05). Similarly, the AMH concentration was higher in Bos indicus (Nelore) than in Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers (p < 0.0001). When heifers were classified as to present high or low AFP according to the mean of the AFP within each genetic group, high-AFP heifers presented a greater (p < 0.0001) AMH concentration than low-AFP heifers, regardless of the genetic group. In conclusion, the AFP is positively correlated with plasma AMH concentration in both Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers. Furthermore, Bos indicus (Nelore) heifers presented both greater plasma AMH concentrations and AFP than Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers.
Our objective was to evaluate the effects of providing increasing levels of chitosan on nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, blood parameters, nitrogen utilisation, microbial protein synthesis, and milk yield and composition of lactating dairy cows. Eight rumen-fistulated Holstein cows [average days in lactation = 215 ± 60.9; and average bodyweight (BW) = 641 ± 41.1 kg] were assigned into a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with 21-day evaluation periods. Cows were assigned to be provided with four levels of chitosan, placed into the rumen through the fistula, as follows: (1) Control: with no provision of chitosan; (2) 75 mg/kg BW; (3) 150 mg/kg BW; and (4) 225 mg/kg BW. Chitosan had no effect on dry matter intake (P > 0.73); however, chitosan increased (P = 0.05) crude protein digestibility. Propionate concentration was increased (P = 0.02), and butyrate, isobutyrate, isovalerate and acetate : propionate ratio were decreased (P ≤ 0.04) by chitosan. Chitosan had no effect (P > 0.25) on acetate, pH and NH3 ruminal concentration. Glucose, urea, and hepatic enzyme concentrations in the blood were similar (P > 0.30) among treatments. Nitrogen balance was not affected, but chitosan increased milk nitrogen (P = 0.02). Microbial protein synthesis was not affected by chitosan (P > 0.44). Chitosan increased (P = 0.02) milk yield, fat-corrected milk, protein and lactose production. Chitosan changes ruminal fermentation and improves milk yield of lactating dairy cows; therefore, we conclude that chitosan can be used as a rumen modulator instead of ionophores in diets for dairy cows.
Feed additives and fat sources have been used to meet high productive dairy cow energy requirements. This study aimed to evaluate dietary chitosan and soybean oil effects on mid-lactation dairy cow intake, digestibility, metabolism and productive performance. Twenty-four Holstein cows (134.7 ± 53.1 days in milk, 36.14 ± 5.32 kg/day of milk yield, and 581.2 ± 73.6 kg of body weight, Mean ± SD) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods, with 14 d of adaptation and 7 d for data collection. The treatment arrangement was a 2×2 factorial design with two levels of chitosan (0 and 4 g/kg of dietary dry matter-DM) and two levels of soybean oil (0 and 33 g/kg of dietary DM). Chitosan decreased intake only in diets without oil (P < 0.05). Regardless of fat addition, chitosan increased DM and CP digestibility (P < 0.05). Soybean oil and chitosan increased total serum cholesterol (P < 0.05). Chitosan diet had higher urea plasma concentration than control diet (CON) (P < 0.05). Over all, soybean oil increased propionate and decreased acetate ruminal molar proportion, and therefore decreased acetate:propionate ratio (P < 0.05). Chitosan decreased milk yield, nitrogen use and feed conversion efficiencies in oil-diets (P < 0.05). Soybean oil decreased short and medium milk fatty acids concentration (P < 0.05). Chitosan had no effect on long-chain milk fatty acids in diets with soybean oil (P > 0.05). However, in free oil-diets, chitosan increased milk polyunsaturated fatty acids concentration, nitrogen and energy efficiency. Chitosan addition in free-fat diets improved feed efficiency, increased milk unsaturated fatty acids concentration and association with soybean oil negatively affect animal performance.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary fat supplementation on dry dairy cows feed intake, digestion, ruminal kinetics, biohydrogenation, and abomasal flow of fatty acids (FAs). Eight Holstein rumen and abomasum fistulated dry cows (average body weight of 614 ± 59 kg), were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment, with 21-d periods. The experimental diets were: 1) control (CON): corn-and soybean meal-based diet, with no fat source; 2) soybean oil (SO) diet with 30 g/kg dry matter (DM) of soybean oil; 3) whole raw soybean (WS) diet with 160 g/kg DM of whole raw soybean grain; 4) calcium salts of fatty acids (CS) diet with 32 g/kg DM of calcium salts of unsaturated FA. Fat-supplemented diets increased ether extract intake and digestibility without affecting DM intake. However, these diets promoted a decrease in DM and neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) total tract apparent digestibility. Fat sources decreased ruminal acetate to propionate ratio (C2:C3). In addition, SO diet increased ruminal propionate concentration and decreased C2:C3 in relation to protected sources of FA (CS and WS). Furthermore, cows fed CS diet exhibited higher ruminal pH, NH 3-N and acetate concentration compared to those fed WS diet. Fatty acid supplementation did not alter serum glucose and urea concentration, but increased the serum cholesterol concentration. Although FA supplementation increased net energy intake of cows, energy and nitrogen balances, and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by the experimental diets. Fat supplementation had no effect on ruminal digestion neither on DM and NDF passage rates. Cows fed CS and WS diets presented higher DM and NDF ruminal digestion rates whether compared to SO one. Consequently, cows fed CS and WS had higher truly digestible NDF ruminal removal rate than those fed SO. Calcium salts of unsaturated FA increased DM and NDF rumen passage rate and decreased
Lactation diets are composed mostly of carbohydrates that are not fully fermented by rumen microbes. The aim of this study was to evaluate exogenous fibrolytic (Fibrozyme, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and amylolytic (Amaize, Alltech Inc.) enzymes on nutrient intake, sorting index, total-tract apparent digestibility, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen utilization, milk yield, and composition of dairy cows in mid-lactation. Thirtytwo multiparous Holstein cows (181 ± 35 d in milk, 571 ± 72.7 kg of body weight, and 29.6 ± 5.24 kg/d of milk yield at the start of experiment) were blocked according to milk yield and randomly allocated to treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were (1) control, basal diet without exogenous enzymes;(2) fibrolytic enzyme (FIB), dietary supplementation of Fibrozyme at 12 g/d (51 IU of xylanase activity/ kg of diet dry matter); (3) amylolytic enzyme (AMY), dietary supplementation of Amaize at 8 g/d (203 fungal amylase units/kg of diet dry matter); and (4) both fibrolytic and amylolytic enzymes (FIB+AMY) added at the same dose of the individual treatments. Enzyme products were added to the concentrate during its preparation (once a week). The supply of FIB and AMY had no effect on nutrient intake and digestibility. However, an interaction effect was observed on sorting index of feed particle size between 8 and 19 mm. Amylolytic enzyme increased the sorting for feed particles between 8 and 19 mm, only when fed without FIB. In addition, AMY decreased the sorting for feed with particle size greater than 19 mm. An interaction effect was observed between FIB and AMY for ruminal butyrate concentration and N excretion. Amylolytic enzyme increased ruminal butyrate concentration in cows treated with FIB. Further, FIB decreased milk protein production and feed efficiency only in cows not fed AMY. Amylolytic enzyme reduced urinary N excretion. Exogenous enzymes had no effect on milk production and composition of dairy cows. This study lacks evidence that fibrolytic and amylolytic enzymes can affect nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and performance of mid-lactation cows.
Chitosan is a biopolymer derived from chitin deacetylation, present in the exoskeleton of crustaceans and insects. Chitosan has been evaluated as rumen modulator and silage additive due to its antimicrobial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of both chitosan and a bacterial additive on microbiological quality, chemical composition, nutrient in vitro degradation, fermentative profile, and total losses of whole-soybean plant silage (SS) harvested at R6 stage. Four treatments in a factorial arrangement were randomly assigned to 40 experimental minisilos as no additives (CON), 8 g/t fresh forage of microbial inoculant (INO; Kera SIL, Kera Nutrição Animal, Bento Gonçalves, Brazil); 5 g/kg of fresh forage chitosan (CHI); and CHI + INO. Microbial inoculant was composed of Lactobacillus plantarum (4.0 × 10 cfu/g) and Propionibacterium acidipropionici (2.6 × 10 cfu/g). The CHI and INO alone increased counts of lactic bacteria and anaerobic bacteria and decreased counts of mold and yeast in SS. The CHI or INO alone increased in vitro degradation of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber, and decreased nonfiber carbohydrate content of SS. Chitosan increased NH-N and lactate concentrations and decreased ethanol concentration in SS. The CHI increased dry matter recovery from SS; INO increased silage aerobic stability. The combination of CHI+INO showed the lowest value of gas losses. In general, the combination of CHI and INO had small positive effects on gas losses of SS; however, both CHI or INO alone improved nutrient in vitro degradation and decreased mold and yeast in SS. Chitosan or INO utilization improves SS quality.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.