a b s t r a c tThis study aimed to investigate the effects of chitosan on dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and blood metabolites in Nellore steers. Eight ruminally cannulated Nellore steers (540 ± 28.5 kg of BW) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with 21-d of experimental periods. The animals were randomly assigned to the following treatments: control (without chitosan addition; Q0), Q50, Q100 and Q150, by dosing 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg BW chitosan, respectively, through the cannula. Although there was no difference on DMI, chitosan addition increased dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein apparent total-tract digestibility (P < 0.05). Ruminal pH was not affected, whereas NH 3 N concentration was quadratically affected with chitosan addition (P = 0.01). There were no differences in total volatile fatty acids concentration among treatments. Chitosan had a quadratic effect on propionate and butyrate, whereas acetate molar proportions decreased linearly (P < 0.05). Acetate:propionate ratio decreased with chitosan addition (P < 0.05). Plasma glucose concentration was higher with chitosan addition (P < 0.05); however, total protein, urea, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase were not affected by chitosan. Addition of chitosan altered ruminal fermentation, improved nutrient digestibility, and did not appear to damage animal health.
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of inoculants on chemical composition, dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) in vitro degradation, fermentative and effluent losses, microbiology, fermentative profile, and aerobic stability of sugarcane mini-silos. Treatments were randomly distributed to the mini-silos, in which: (1) Control (CON); (2) Lactobacillus buchneri (Lb), addition of Lb at 2.6 × 10 10 cfu/g; (3) Lactobacillus buchneri and Bacillus subtilis (Lb + Bs), addition of Lb at 2.6 × 10 10 cfu/g and Bs at 1 × 10 9 cfu/g; and (4) Chitosan (CHI), addition of 1% of CHI on wet basis of sugarcane ensiled. Treatments 2 and 3 were incorporated to the silage at 2 g/t of natural matter ensiled. Lb and Lb + Bs did not alter the in vitro degradation of DM and NDF. Chitosan incorporation increased the DM content (P = 0.013, 18.7 g/kg DM) and improved (P = 0.029, 45.6 g/kg DM) the NDF in vitro degradation of sugarcane silage. In addition, CHI incorporation showed higher (P = 0.002) DM content in silage than Lb and Lb + Bs. Microbial inoculants (Lb and Lb + Bs) reduced the total losses (P = 0.009) of sugarcane silage. Moreover, CHI incorporation showed lower (P = 0.001, 84.9 g/kg DM) total losses and higher (P = 0.031, 84.8 g/kg DM) dry matter recovery than Lb and Lb + Bs. Lactic acid bacteria concentration was increased (P = 0.001) with additives, and CHI incorporation showed higher (P = 0.001) lactic acid bacteria concentration than silages treated Lb and Lb + Bs. All additives decreased the ethanol concentration in sugarcane silage, but CHI showed lower (P = 0.002) ethanol concentration compared to Lb and Lb + Bs. Inoculants improved the aerobic stability of sugarcane silage. In general, the incorporation of CHI to sugarcane silage showed better results of NDF in vitro degradation and gas and effluent losses than Lb and Lb + Bs. Moreover,
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of supplemental n-3 and n-6 fatty acid (FA) sources on cellular immune function of transition dairy cows. Animals were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (n-3 FA source; n=11), 60 and 80g/kg of whole flaxseed [diet dry matter (DM) basis] during pre- and postpartum, respectively; whole raw soybeans (n-6 FA source; n=10), 120 and 160g/kg of whole raw soybeans (diet DM basis) during pre- and postpartum, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated FA (Megalac-E, n-6 FA source; n=10), 24 and 32g/kg of calcium salts of unsaturated FA (diet DM basis) during pre- and postpartum, respectively. Supplemental FA did not alter DM intake and milk yield but increased energy balance during the postpartum period. Diets containing n-3 and n-6 FA sources increased phagocytosis capacity of leukocytes and monocytes and phagocytosis activity of monocytes. Furthermore, n-3 FA source increased phagocytic capacity of leukocytes and neutrophils and increased phagocytic activity in monocytes and neutrophils when compared with n-6 FA sources. Supplemental FA effects on adaptive immune system included increased percentage of T-helper cells, T-cytotoxic cells, cells that expressed IL-2 receptors, and CD62 adhesion molecules. The results of this study suggest that unsaturated FA can modulate innate and adaptive cellular immunity and trigger a proinflammatory response. The n-3 FA seems to have a greater effect on phagocytic capacity and activity of leukocytes when compared with n-6 FA.
ObjectiveTwo experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of coated slow-release urea on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen utilization, blood glucose and urea concentration (Exp 1), and average daily gain (ADG; Exp 2) of steers.MethodsExp 1: Eight ruminally fistulated steers [503±28.5 kg body weight (BW)] were distributed into a d 4×4 Latin square design and assigned to treatments: control (CON), feed grade urea (U2), polymer-coated slow-release urea A (SRA2), and polymer-coated slow-release urea B (SRB2). Dietary urea sources were set at 20 g/kg DM. Exp 2: 84 steers (350.5±26.5 kg initial BW) were distributed to treatments: CON, FGU at 10 or 20 g/kg diet DM (U1 and U2, respectively), coated SRA2 at 10 or 20 g/kg diet DM (SRA1 and SRA2, respectively), and coated SRB at 10 or 20 g/kg diet DM (SRB1 and SRB2, respectively).ResultsExp 1: Urea treatments (U2+SRA2+SRB2) decreased (7.4%, p = 0.03) the DM intake and increased (11.4%, p<0.01) crude protein digestibility. Coated slow-release urea (SRA2+SRB2) showed similar nutrient digestibility compwared to feed grade urea (FGU). However, steers fed SRB2 had higher (p = 0.02) DM digestibility compared to those fed SRA2. Urea sources did not affect ruminal fermentation when compared to CON. Although, coated slow-release urea showed lower (p = 0.01) concentration of NH3-N (−10.4%) and acetate to propionate ratio than U2. Coated slow-release urea showed lower (p = 0.02) urinary N and blood urea concentration compared to FGU. Exp 2: Urea sources decreased (p = 0.01) the ADG in relation to CON. Animals fed urea sources at 10 g/kg DM showed higher (12.33%, p = 0.01) ADG compared to those fed urea at 20 g/kg DM.ConclusionFeeding urea decreased the nutrient intake without largely affected the nutrient digestibility. In addition, polymer-coated slow-release urea sources decreased ruminal ammonia concentration and increased ruminal propionate production. Urea at 20 g/kg DM, regardless of source, decreased ADG compared both to CON and diets with urea at 10 g/kg DM.
Chitosan is a biopolymer derived from chitin deacetylation, present in the exoskeleton of crustaceans and insects. Chitosan has been evaluated as rumen modulator and silage additive due to its antimicrobial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of both chitosan and a bacterial additive on microbiological quality, chemical composition, nutrient in vitro degradation, fermentative profile, and total losses of whole-soybean plant silage (SS) harvested at R6 stage. Four treatments in a factorial arrangement were randomly assigned to 40 experimental minisilos as no additives (CON), 8 g/t fresh forage of microbial inoculant (INO; Kera SIL, Kera Nutrição Animal, Bento Gonçalves, Brazil); 5 g/kg of fresh forage chitosan (CHI); and CHI + INO. Microbial inoculant was composed of Lactobacillus plantarum (4.0 × 10 cfu/g) and Propionibacterium acidipropionici (2.6 × 10 cfu/g). The CHI and INO alone increased counts of lactic bacteria and anaerobic bacteria and decreased counts of mold and yeast in SS. The CHI or INO alone increased in vitro degradation of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber, and decreased nonfiber carbohydrate content of SS. Chitosan increased NH-N and lactate concentrations and decreased ethanol concentration in SS. The CHI increased dry matter recovery from SS; INO increased silage aerobic stability. The combination of CHI+INO showed the lowest value of gas losses. In general, the combination of CHI and INO had small positive effects on gas losses of SS; however, both CHI or INO alone improved nutrient in vitro degradation and decreased mold and yeast in SS. Chitosan or INO utilization improves SS quality.
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