Statistical treatment of recordings of spontaneous unit discharges from the ventromedial nucleus and the lateral area of the hypothalamus (the activities in one area being recorded while the other was stimulated) revealed significant reciprocal relations. The concept that glucose-sensitive neurons are present in the ventromedial nucleus was supported by the effects on the spontaneous unit discharges of injecting glucose and other-solutions intravenously.
Mechanical stimulation of one mammary tumor cell in culture induced an increase in its intracellular calcium concentration which spread to surrounding cells. The increase in calcium can also be induced by addition of a solution in which cultured mammary tumor cells were stimulated by repeated pipetting (solution after pipetting cells, SAPC). The activity of the SAPC was completely abolished by treatment with snake venom phosphodiesterase or pyrophosphatase. Uridine triphosphate (UTP), uridine diphosphate (UDP) and ATP (1 microM each) were detected in the SAPC, whereas 5'-UMP and 5'-AMP were produced by phosphodiesterase digestion. A mixture of UTP, UDP and ATP (1 microM each) elicited a calcium response which was comparable to that induced by SAPC, while UTP, UDP or ATP alone at 1 microM elicited a small increase in calcium concentration in mammary tumor cells. Suramin, a competitive antagonist of P2 purinoceptors, diminished the spreading of the calcium wave induced by mechanical stimulation. It also blocked the responses to SAPC, UTP, UDP and ATP. These findings suggest that the mechanical stimulation results in the release of UTP, UDP and ATP into the extracellular space which mediates induction of the spreading calcium response via P2U-type purinoceptors.
A way to understand mechanical characteristics of an ultrasonic motor is presented. First, the vibration mode of a stator is calculated using a finite-element method (FEM) code. The path of the elliptic motion of the stator's teeth is obtained. The computed vibration mode at the surface of the stator is compared with that measured by an electrooptical displacement transducer. Next, the contact condition of the rotor/stator is calculated. The displacement and velocity of the rotor/stator, the distortion of the stick/slip area, the rotational speed of the rotor, and the friction loss of the motor are obtained. The calculated rotor displacement and torque-rotational speed curve correspond closely to the experimentally measured ones. The internal loss of the rotor/stator and the loss of the supporting felt are measured. The total loss of these losses and the calculated friction loss agree with the measured total loss. The calculated and the measured efficiency of the motor also agree.
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