In the past decades, metabolomics has been used to comprehensively understand a variety of food materials for improvement and assessment of food quality. Farm animal skeletal muscles and meat are one of the major targets of metabolomics for the characterization of meat and the exploration of biomarkers in the production system. For identification of potential biomarkers to control meat quality, studies of animal muscles and meat with metabolomics (MEATabolomics) has been conducted in combination with analyses of meat quality traits, focusing on specific factors associated with animal genetic background and sensory scores, or conditions in feeding system and treatments of meat in the processes such as postmortem storage, processing, and hygiene control. Currently, most of MEATabolomics approaches combine separation techniques (gas or liquid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis)–mass spectrometry (MS) or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approaches with the downstream multivariate analyses, depending on the polarity and/or hydrophobicity of the targeted metabolites. Studies employing these approaches provide useful information to monitor meat quality traits efficiently and to understand the genetic background and production system of animals behind the meat quality. MEATabolomics is expected to improve the knowledge and methodologies in animal breeding and feeding, meat storage and processing, and prediction of meat quality.
Analytical methodologies to comprehensively evaluate beef quality are increasingly needed to accelerate improvement in both breeding and post-mortem processing. Consumer palatability towards beef is generally attributed to tenderness, flavor, and/or juiciness. These primary qualities are modified by post-mortem aging and the crude content and fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat. In this study, we report a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic profiles of Japanese Black cattle to evaluate the compositional attributes of intramuscular fat and the long-term post-mortem aging. The unsaturation degree of triacylglycerol was estimated by the 1H NMR spectra and was correlated with the content ratio of unsaturated fatty acids (R 2 = 0.944) and the melting point of intramuscular fat (R 2 = 0.871). NMR-detected profiles of water-soluble metabolites revealed overall metabolic change (R 2 = 0.951) and several metabolites (R 2 > 0.818) linearly correlated with long-term aging duration, which can be used to evaluate the aging rate and aging duration of beef. This approach also provided the pH profile during aging, which is related to the water-holding capacity of beef. Thus, NMR-based metabolomics has the potential to evaluate multiple parameters related to the beef qualities of Japanese Black cattle.
The implementation of genomic selection for Japanese Black cattle, known for rich marbling of their meat, is now being explored. Although multiple-step methods are often adopted for dairy cattle, they present shortcomings such as bias and loss of information in addition to operational complexity. These can be avoided using single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) based on the relationship matrix H, which is constructed from the numerator relationship matrix (A) augmented by the genomic relationship matrix (G). This study assessed the use of ssGBLUP for 3 economically important traits in Japanese Black cattle. Three aspects of ssGBLUP that are important for practical use were examined specifically: the mixing proportions of blending G with A, selection of subsets of genotyped animals used for constructing H, and prediction ability for ungenotyped animals. Different mixing proportions were tested to assess the influence of these proportions on variance component estimation and prediction accuracy. For all traits, the highest or nearly highest accuracy was obtained when the adopted mixing proportion provided heritability closest to that inferred based on A. However, the accuracy did not increase greatly under adjustment of the mixing proportion, thereby suggesting that the influence of the mixing proportion on the accuracy was limited. Genotype data of influential bulls showed a greater contribution to accuracy than that of bulls that were less influential. Genotyping animals with phenotypic records increased the accuracy. It can be prioritized over genotyping bulls that are not influential on the population. These results are expected to present good guides to the future expansion of genotyped populations. Even for animals without genotype data but with genotyped sires, ssGBLUP provided more accurate prediction than BLUP did. For both phenotype and breeding value prediction, ssGBLUP provides more accurate prediction than BLUP, suggesting its usefulness in genomic selection in Japanese Black cattle.
The aim of this study was to clarify the saturation processes of excitatory and inhibitory synapse densities during the long-term development of cultured neuronal networks. For this purpose, we performed a long-term culture of rat cortical cells for 35 days in vitro (DIV). During this culture period, we labeled glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses separately using antibodies against vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGluT1) and vesicular transporter of -aminobutyric acid (VGAT). The densities and distributions of both types of synaptic terminals were measured simultaneously. Observations and subsequent measurements of immunofluorescence demonstrated that the densities of both types of antibody-labeled terminals increased gradually from 7 to 21-28 DIV. The densities did not show a further increase at 35 DIV and tended to become saturated.Triple staining with VGluT1, VGAT, and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) enabled analysis of the distribution of both types of synapses, and revealed that the densities of the two types of synaptic terminals on somata were not significantly different, but that glutamatergic synapses predominated on the dendrites during long-term culture.However, some neurons did not fall within this distribution, suggesting differences in synapse distribution on target neurons. The electrical activity also showed an initial increase and subsequent saturation of the firing rate and synchronized burst rate during long-term culture, and the number of days of culture to saturation from the initial increase followed the same pattern under this culture condition.
To search for an index for chemical composition related to superior taste in Japanese Black beef, we conducted panel tests and analyzed the chemical composition of seven beef brands. Thirty-five sirloin beefs from five heifers were used in this study, sold under seven beef brands graded as more than A4 on the Japanese Meat Grade scale. The chemical composition analyses assessed both raw and roasted meat, the latter of which was roasted under the same conditions as those used for the panel test. Results of the panel test and chemical composition analyses revealed that fatty acid composition, sugar content, adenosine triphosphage (ATP)-related compounds, amino acid composition and odor composition in the sirloin meat differed among beef brands. Furthermore, the correlations of chemical compositions between roasted and raw meat were significantly high. Sugar content and ATP-related compounds in roasted meat were significantly correlated with the item 'overall evaluation' of the panel test. ATP-related compounds, such as inosinic acid, carnosine and taurine, in roasted and raw meat were correlated significantly with the item 'umami intensity' of the panel test. These results suggest that the composition of these components is important for an index related to the overall evaluation of beef.
Because fatty acid composition influences the flavor and texture of meat, controlling it is particularly important for cattle breeds such as the Japanese Black, characterized by high meat quality. We evaluated the predictive ability of single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP) in fatty acid composition of Japanese Black cattle by assessing the composition of seven fatty acids in 3088 cattle, of which 952 had genome-wide marker genotypes. All sires of the genotyped animals were genotyped, but their dams were not. Cross-validation was conducted for the 952 animals. The prediction accuracy was higher with ssGBLUP than with best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) for all traits, and in an empirical investigation, the gain in accuracy of using ssGBLUP over BLUP increased as the deviations in phenotypic values of the animals increased. In addition, the superior accuracy of ssGBLUP tended to be more evident in animals whose maternal grandsire was genotyped than in other animals, although the effect was small.
Spectrin strengthens the red cell membrane through its direct association with membrane lipids and through protein-protein interactions. Spectrin loss reduces the membrane stability and results in various types of hereditary spherocytosis. However, less is known about acquired spectrin damage. Here, we showed that α-and β-spectrin in human red cells are the primary targets of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry analyses. The level of HNE adducts in spectrin (particularly α-spectrin) and several other membrane proteins was increased following the HNE treatment of red cell membrane ghosts prepared in the absence of MgATP. In contrast, ghost preparation in the presence of MgATP reduced HNE adduct formation, with preferential β-spectrin modification and increased cross-linking of the HNE-modified spectrins. Exposure of intact red cells to HNE resulted in selective HNE-spectrin adduct formation with a similar preponderance of HNE-β-spectrin modifications. These findings indicate that HNE adduction occurs preferentially in spectrin at the interface between the skeletal proteins and lipid bilayer in red cells and suggest that HNE-spectrin adduct aggregation results in the extrusion of damaged spectrin and membrane lipids under physiological and disease conditions.
In situ neutron powder diffraction analysis from 297 to 1358 K indicates the experimental evidence of the coexistence of order-disorder and displacive nature in the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO(4), KTP).
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.