The present paper re-examines the asymmetric impact of financial development on environmental quality in Pakistan for the period 1985Q1 to 2014Q4. A comprehensive index of financial development is generated using Bank-and Stock market-based financial development indicators. The results show that inefficient use of energy adversely affects the environmental quality. This suggests adoption of energy efficient technology at both production and consumption levels. These technologies would be helpful to improve environmental quality, enhance the productivity in long-run and save energy. Bank-based financial development also impedes the environment. The government should encourage lenders to ease the funding for energy sector and allocate financial resources for environment friendly businesses rather than wasting them in consumer financing.
This paper examines the empirical validity of the tourism-led growth hypothesis in the toptentourist destinations in the world(China, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Russia, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States)using the quantile-on-quantile (QQ) approach and a new index of tourism activity that combines the most commonly used tourism indicators. This methodology, recently introduced by Sim and Zhou (2015), provides an ideal framework with which to capture the overall dependence structure between tourism development and economic growth. The empirical results primarily show a positive relation between tourism and economic growth for the ten countries considered with substantial variations across countries and across quantiles within each country. The weakest links arenoted for China and Germany,possibly because of the limitedimportance of the tourism sector relative to other major economic activities in those countries. Important country-specific policy implications may be drawn from these findings.
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