Nutritional improvements in intensive aquaculture production systems is necessary for the reduction of stress, maximum utilization of nutritional components, and expression of the genetic potential of fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hemato-immunological, and histological parameters and gut microbiota of Nile tilapia fed with the microalga Schizochytrium sp. Males of Nile tilapia were distributed among eight net cages (6 m 3 ), and fed for 105 days with two diets: control (CON), without Schizochytrium sp., and supplemented (SUP), with 1.2% Schizochytrium sp. in the diet. The final weight, mortality, hematocrit, total erythrocyte count (RBC), hemoglobin, hematimetric indices, white blood cell count (WBC), total protein, and serum lysozyme were measured. Alterations in intestinal morphology were evaluated. The gut microbiota was evaluated with next-generation sequencing. No significant differences (p>0.05) were found in the final weight and mortality between diets. Regarding the hematological parameters, a difference (p<0.05) was detected only in RBC, with there being lower values in the SUP, although this group also showed a tendency toward having an increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin level. There were no differences (p>0.05) in total protein and serum lysozyme concentrations or in WBCs between diets, except for lymphocytes, which presented lower values (p<0.05) in the SUP, suggesting immunomodulation by the polyunsaturated fatty acids present in the microalga. There was no difference (p>0.05) in the intestinal morphology between diets. Metagenomic data indicated greater richness (represented by the Chao index) and a higher abundance of the bacterial phylum Firmicutes in the gut microbiota of the tilapia fed with the SUP diet, demonstrating that the digestion and use of the components of the microalga could influence the microbial community. The results indicated that the microalga had modulatory PLOS ONE | https://doi.
This work evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation of A-Live (phytogenic) either individually or in combination with Aquaform (potassium diformate, acidifier) on juvenile Nile tilapia (
) growth performance, innate immune parameters, gut microbiome, and resistance against
challenge. Each experimental group contained 140 fishes (34.3 ± 0.33) in two 150L tanks. The experimental design consisted of five groups: a negative control; treated groups (G1, G2, G3) supplemented with different concentrations of A-Live and Aquaform in the feed; and a positive control (PC) for pathogen infection. Groups G1, G2, G3, and PC were challenged with
spp. after 15 days. After infection, the mortality was significantly lower in groups G1, G2, and G3 (p < 0.01). Furthermore, these groups showed significant increase (p < 0.05) in daily weight gain, feed conversion rate, and specific growth rate. The PC group presented increase (p < 0.05) in the leukocytes and neutrophils number. Innate immunity parameters showed no difference between treatments after infection. Microbiome analysis revealed an increased number of bacteria belonging to the Vibrionaceae family after pathogen infection suggesting a secondary pathogen function of these bacteria. These results validate the beneficial effects of these products in tilapia farming.
The Leptospira serovar Hedjo belongs to the serogroup sejroe and this serovar is the most prevalent in bovine herds worldwide. The sejroe serogroup is the most frequently detected by serology in Brazilian cattle herds suggesting that it is due serovar Hardjo. In the molecular classification, this serovar has two genotypes: Hardjobovis and Hardjoprajitno. This serovar is as considered as fastidious pathogens, and their isolation is one of the bottlenecks in leptospirosis laboratories. In addition, its molecular characterization using genomic approaches is oftentimes not simple and time-consuming. This study describes a method for isolating the two genotypes of serovar Hardjo using culture medium formulations and suggests a get-at-able molecular characterization. Ten cows naturally infected which were seropositive were selected from small dairy farms, and their urine was collected for bacterial isolation. We evaluated three modifications of liquid Leptospira medium culture supplemented with sodium pyruvate, superoxide dismutase enzyme and fetal bovine serum, and the isolates were characterized by molecular techniques. After isolation and adaptation in standard culture medium, the strains were subcultured for 1 week in the three modified culture media for morphologic evaluation using electronic microscopy. Strains were molecularly identified by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), partial sequencing and phylogenic analyses of gene sec Y. Combining the liquid culture medium formulations allowed growth of the Leptospira serovar Hardjo in three tubes. Two isolates were identified as genotype Hardjobovis, and the other as genotype Hardjoprajitno. Morphologically, compared with control media, cells in the medium supplemented with the superoxide dismutase enzyme were more elongated and showed many cells in division. The cells in the medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum were fewer and lost their spirochete morphology. This indicated that the additional supplementation with fetal bovine serum assisted in the initial growth and maintenance of the viable leptospires and the superoxide dismutase enzyme allowed them to adapt to the medium. These culture strategies allowed for the isolation and convenient molecular characterization of two genotypes of serovar Hardjo, creating new insight into the seroepidemiology of leptospirosis and its specific genotypes. It also provides new information for the immunoprophylaxis of bovine leptospirosis.
We investigated the porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus (PLHV) DNA presence in multiple organs of pigs. Biological samples (n = 136) included tissue fragments of the central nervous system, heart, kidney, liver, lungs, spleen, urinary bladder, and urine. Sixty-eight (50%) organs were PLHV DNA-positive. None of the urine samples were detected with the virus genome. Although the presence of the PLHV DNA in the urinary bladder and kidney has been detected, it was not possible to show whether urine can be considered an effective route of virus shedding. This study warns to the risk of PLHV zoonotic transmission by xenotransplantation of tissues of porcine origin.
Birds are increasingly close to men, and many times are raised as pets. However, many times, these animals may carry and spread enterobacteria that are deleterious to human health. Salmonella sp. is considered one of the most common zoonoses in the world, causing important losses to public health. Although, Escherichia coli is an important commensal in the gastrointestinal tract of most animals, it may cause disease both in men and animals, depending on the strain and its pathogenicity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli in freeliving and captive wild birds in the city of Guarapuava, PR, Brazil. Animals were divided according to the taxonomic order, as follows: Columbiformes (228), Psittaciformes (128), Passeriformes (63), Piciformes (26), Falconiformes (19), Stringiformes (6), and Accipitriformes (01), in a total of 471 birds. Bacterial isolation was carried out by means of cloacal swabs, with 69.38% birds positive for E. coli and 22.32% for Salmonella sp. From the total of birds, 143 showed co-infection with Salmonella sp. and E. coli. Columbiformes showed the greatest occurrence of E. coli (82.33%). Falconiformes showed the greatest number of negative birds (57.9%). These results demonstrate that birds that were analyzed may carry and spread these enterobacteria, and preventive measures for human exposure should be determined, as these microorganisms are public health concerns.
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