During a Brazilian multicentric antimicrobial resistance surveillance study, colistin resistance was investigated in 4,620 Enterobacteriaceae isolated from human, animal, food and environmental samples collected from 2000 to 2016. We present evidence that mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli has been emerging in South America since at least 2012, supporting a previous report on the possible acquisition of mcr-1-harbouring E. coli by European travellers visiting Latin American countries.
The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between seropositivity for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and socio-economic and environmental variables in pregnant women of Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We interviewed 492 pregnant women, each of whom answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by chemiluminescence. A confirmatory diagnosis of acute infection was made by an IgG avidity test. Titres of specific IgG anti-T. gondii were obtained by IFAT. Seropositivity for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies was observed in 242 women (49.2%) and, of these, six pregnant women (1.2%) showed seropositivity for IgM. Age group, level of education, per capita income, presence of a cat in the house and a habit of eating green vegetables were all factors associated with a greater chance of infection with T. gondii. This study showed that 250 (50.8%) pregnant women were susceptible to T. gondii and considered to be at high risk for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Based on the results obtained, is critical to establish a program of health surveillance for toxoplasmosis, in order to contribute to diagnosis and early treatment during the prenatal period. It is also necessary to introduce measures to prevent the Toxoplasma infection in seronegative pregnant women.
Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The main infection routes are ingestion of cysts from raw or badly-cooked meat, ingestion of oocysts from substrates contaminated with the feces of infected felines and congenital transmission by tachyzoites. The congenital form results in a severe systemic disease, because if the mother is infected for the first time during gestation, she can present a temporary parasitemia that will infect the fetus. Many of the clinical symptoms are seen in congenitallyinfected children, from a mild disease to serious signs, such as mental retardation. Early diagnosis during the pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection, through treatment of pregnant women, reducing the probability of fetal infection and consequent substantial damage to the fetus. Conventional tests for establishment of a fetal diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include options from serology to PCR. Prevention of human toxoplasmosis is based on care to avoid infection, understanding the disease and serological exams during gestation. Pregnant women should be tested serologically from three months gestation, until one month after childbirth. Inclusion of serology for congenital toxoplasmosis along with the basic Guthrie test for PKU is of fundamental importance for early diagnosis of infection and so that treatment is initiated, in order to avoid possible sequels in the infant.
SUMMARYLeptospirosis, brucellosis and toxoplasmosis are widely-distributed zoonosis, being the man an accidental participant of their epidemiological chains. The aim of this paper was to make a seroepidemiological report and identify occupational and environmental variables related to these illnesses in 150 workers in a slaughterhouse in the Northern region of Paraná. For the diagnosis of leptospirosis a microscopical seroagglutination test was applied; for brucellosis, the tamponated acidified antigen test and the 2-mercaptoetanol tests were used, and for toxoplasmosis the indirect immunofluorescence reaction test. For each employee an epidemiological survey was filled, which investigated occupational and environmental variables which could be associated with these infections. Positive results for leptospirosis were found in 4.00% of the samples, for brucellosis in 0.66% of samples and toxoplasmosis in 70.00%. From the three diseases researched, only the results for leptospirosis suggest occupational infection.
BackgroundLeptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and brucellosis are diseases with worldwide distribution. Among stray dogs, these zoonoses are facilitated by direct contact with other animal species, by the habit of scavenging garbage and hunting in search of food, drinking standing water, smelling other animals’ urine, licking female genitalia and the sexual act itself. The objective of this study was to detect antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii, anti-Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella canis and anti-Brucella abortus in stray dogs housed in shelters at Umuarama city, Paraná, Brazil. In order to detect toxoplasmosis, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed, agglutination microscopic (MAT) test for leptospirosis and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and buffered acidified antigen (BAA) tests for brucellosis.ResultsOf the 175 serum samples analyzed, 70.85% were considered positive for toxoplasmosis by IFA, 20% by MAT for leptospirosis and 2.85% by AGID for Brucella canis.ConclusionsThe serological results of this study showed that stray dogs housed at the private shelter are potential carriers of these three different zoonoses and contribute to the spread and maintenance of these etiologic agents in the urban area of Umuarama (PR), Brazil.
SUMMARYA total of 320 horses were studied in this paper, both male and female, between two and 17 years of age, which were used for traction of wagons in the urban area of the municipality of Londrina (PR). These animals were kept, after their daily work, in abandoned areas or plots, in the outskirts of the urban area of the city. When these animals were attended by the veterinarians, between 1996 and 2005, none of them presented symptoms suggesting leptospirosis. The most frequent reasons for the visit were loss of weight, unwillingness for work, parasitism, laminess, and wounds. Microscopic Seroagglutination Test (SAM), with 22 Leptospira serovars, was performed in sera sample from all these animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of antibodies against Leptospira spp. in horses from the urban area of Londrina (PR). From the samples tested, 214 (66.88%) were considered positive, with titers between 100 and 3200, being that 49 (22.90%) presented antibodies against a single serovar of Leptospira, and 165 (77.10%) samples presented antibodies against two or more serovars simultaneously, where in 88 (53.33%) it was possible to characterize the most likely probable serovar. Antibodies against the serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae were detected in 32 (23.36%) animals.
The aim of the present study was to verify the association between seropositivity for IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and social, economic and environmental variables of pregnant women attending the public health centers of Paraná, Brazil. From January 2007 to July 2010, 2226 pregnant women were interviewed and detection of anti-T. gondii specific IgG and IgM antibodies was performed by chemiluminescence test. Seropositivity for anti-T. gondii IgG was observed in 1151 (51.7%) pregnant women, 29 of which (1.3%) presented IgM reagent with IgG of high avidity. The variables associated with the presence of IgG were residency in the rural area, more than one pregnancy, less than or equal to eight years schooling, low per capita income, age group, raw or poorly cooked meat ingestion, and contact with the soil. There was neither association with raw fruit and vegetable ingestion nor with the presence of cats in the residencies.
The aim of this study was to conduct a serological survey for Lyme diseases, brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis and identify the risk variables related to these zoonoses in humans living in the rural area of Jataizinho, state of Parana, Brazil. A total of 63 rural properties were surveyed. Additionally, 207 serum samples collected from these rural area inhabitants were tested for indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) and western blots (WB) were performed to detect Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato); a tamponated acidified antigen test (AAT) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) were used to detect antibodies of Brucella abortus; the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was carried out to detect antibodies anti-Leptospira spp. and IFI was used to find antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii. Two of the samples (0.96%) were reactive for Lyme borreliosis, three (1.4%) for brucellosis, 25 (12.1%) for leptospirosis and 143 (69.1%) for toxoplasmosis. Although the town of Jataizinho has a human development index (IDH) that was considered to be average (0.733) in the state of Parana, the low social, economic and cultural conditions of the population from small rural properties have resulted in lack of basic information on animal health and direct or indirect contact with the various species of domestic animals, wildlife and ticks have probably contributed to the prevalence levels found. These results show the need for additional regional studies in order to determine the epidemiological characteristics of these diseases as well as their respective vectors and reservoirs so that effective prophylaxis can be administered in the human population.
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