Nutritional improvements in intensive aquaculture production systems is necessary for the reduction of stress, maximum utilization of nutritional components, and expression of the genetic potential of fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hemato-immunological, and histological parameters and gut microbiota of Nile tilapia fed with the microalga Schizochytrium sp. Males of Nile tilapia were distributed among eight net cages (6 m 3 ), and fed for 105 days with two diets: control (CON), without Schizochytrium sp., and supplemented (SUP), with 1.2% Schizochytrium sp. in the diet. The final weight, mortality, hematocrit, total erythrocyte count (RBC), hemoglobin, hematimetric indices, white blood cell count (WBC), total protein, and serum lysozyme were measured. Alterations in intestinal morphology were evaluated. The gut microbiota was evaluated with next-generation sequencing. No significant differences (p>0.05) were found in the final weight and mortality between diets. Regarding the hematological parameters, a difference (p<0.05) was detected only in RBC, with there being lower values in the SUP, although this group also showed a tendency toward having an increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin level. There were no differences (p>0.05) in total protein and serum lysozyme concentrations or in WBCs between diets, except for lymphocytes, which presented lower values (p<0.05) in the SUP, suggesting immunomodulation by the polyunsaturated fatty acids present in the microalga. There was no difference (p>0.05) in the intestinal morphology between diets. Metagenomic data indicated greater richness (represented by the Chao index) and a higher abundance of the bacterial phylum Firmicutes in the gut microbiota of the tilapia fed with the SUP diet, demonstrating that the digestion and use of the components of the microalga could influence the microbial community. The results indicated that the microalga had modulatory PLOS ONE | https://doi.
This work evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation of A-Live (phytogenic) either individually or in combination with Aquaform (potassium diformate, acidifier) on juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) growth performance, innate immune parameters, gut microbiome, and resistance against Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis challenge. Each experimental group contained 140 fishes (34.3 ± 0.33) in two 150L tanks. The experimental design consisted of five groups: a negative control; treated groups (G1, G2, G3) supplemented with different concentrations of A-Live and Aquaform in the feed; and a positive control (PC) for pathogen infection. Groups G1, G2, G3, and PC were challenged with Francisella spp. after 15 days. After infection, the mortality was significantly lower in groups G1, G2, and G3 (p < 0.01). Furthermore, these groups showed significant increase (p < 0.05) in daily weight gain, feed conversion rate, and specific growth rate. The PC group presented increase (p < 0.05) in the leukocytes and neutrophils number. Innate immunity parameters showed no difference between treatments after infection. Microbiome analysis revealed an increased number of bacteria belonging to the Vibrionaceae family after pathogen infection suggesting a secondary pathogen function of these bacteria. These results validate the beneficial effects of these products in tilapia farming.
Brycon orbignyanus, popularly known in Brazil as piracanjuba, is a fish with great economic value but whose natural population drastically decreased in number during the last years. In this context, genetic variability studies of natural stocks and in restocking programs are fundamental for the adoption of conservation measures. Current analysis verifies the cross-amplification of heterologous primers in B. orbignyanus. Fifty-two primers of the species Brycon opalinus, Brycon hilarii, Brycon insignis, Prochilodus sp., Piaractus mesopotamicus, Colossoma macropomum and Oreochromis niloticus were tested. Primers with the best reproducibility were applied to a sample of 20 individuals and the genetic parameters were calculated. Nine primers provided good results for cross-amplification with B. orbignyanus, involving (BoM5 and BoM13) of Brycon opalinus, (Bh5, Bh6, Bh8, Bh13 and Bh16) of Brycon hilarii, (Bc48-10) of Brycon insignis and (Par80) of Prochilodus argenteus. Primers of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Colossoma macropomum and Oreochromis niloticus failed to provide amplification or provided non-specificity. Results demonstrated the possibility of using primers of different species and genera of B. orbignyanus, facilitating genetic studies on the species.
In recent years, the genetic monitoring of broodstocks in fish farming has been greatly highlighted due to its importance in the management and improvement of their production and conservation. Current study evaluates the genetic diversity of four Tambaqui broodstocks (Colossoma macropomum) in the state of Rondônia (Brazil) and discusses activities towards the species´s correct production management and conservation. Nine primers were employed to analyze 94 specimens from four fish farms in the municipalities of Ji-Paraná (JP), Ouro Preto do Oeste (OP), Presidente Médici (PM) and Rolim de Moura (RM). Differences in the frequency of 38 fragments, with an exclusive fragment in JP and OP, were reported. High polymorphism (52.40 to 64.60%) and Shannon Index (0.313 to 0.382) rates were observed. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) demonstrated that most variation is within each stock. The identity and genetic distance between the groups ranged between 0.927 and 0.954 and between 0.047 and 0.076 respectively, with shortest distance between the OPxPM and JPxRM groups. Genetic differentiation ranged from moderate to high (Fst = 0.081 to 0.179) and the number of migrants per generation was moderate (Nm = 3.83 to 6.24). As a rule, stocks showed high genetic variability and moderate / high differentiation and genetic distance between them. The results allowed direct conservation programs and increase the productivity of this species in fish farming through breeding programs. ResumoNos últimos anos, o monitoramento genético de estoques na piscicultura tem recebido grande destaque devido a sua importância no gerenciamento e melhora da sua produção e conservação. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar de forma inédita a diversidade genética de quatro estoques de reprodutores Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) do estado de Rondônia (Brasil) e através dela, discutir ações que contribuam com o correto manejo produtivo e conservação dessa espécie. Utilizaram-se nove iniciadores para analisar 94 indivíduos de quatro pisciculturas dos municípios Ji-Paraná (JP), Ouro Preto do Oeste (OP), Presidente Medici (PM) e Rolim de Moura (RM). Foram encontradas diferenças nas frequências de 38 fragmentos, com um fragmento exclusivo em JP e OP. Altos valores de polimorfismo (52,40 a 64,60%) e índice de Shannon (0,313 a 0,382) foram observados. A análise de variância molecular (AMOVA) demostrou que a maior parte da variação está dentro de cada estoque. A identidade e distância genética entre os agrupamentos variou de 0,927 a 0,954 e 0,047 a 0,076, respectivamente, com menor distância entre os agrupamentos OPxPM e JPxRM. A diferenciação genética variou de moderada a alta (Fst = 0,081 a 0,179) e o número de migrantes por geração foi moderado (Nm = 3,83 a 6,24). De forma geral, os estoques apresentaram alta variabilidade genética e moderada/alta diferenciação e distancia genética entre eles. Os resultados permitirão direcionar programas de conservação e aumentar a produtividade dessa espécie na piscicultura através de program...
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the genetic diversity within three Tambaqui broodstocks (Colossoma macropomum). Eight primers were used to analyze 67 individuals collected from three fish farming in the municipalities: Porto Real do Colégio -Alagoas (PRC), Araujo 1 -Sergipe (AR1) and Araujo 2 -Sergipe (AR2), in Brazil. Differences in the frequencies of 88 fragments and four exclusive fragments in PRC were found. High polymorphism values (from 54.38% to 64.38%) and Shannon´s index (from 0.33 to 0.37) were observed. The AMOVA showed that high variation is within each broodstock. The identity and the genetic distance among the groups ranged from 0.845 to 0.975 and from 0.025 to 0.156 respectively, and the shortest distance was found in the groups PRC x AR1 and PRC x AR2. The genetic differentiation ranged from lower to higher (F st = 0.03 and 0.178) as well as the migratory number per generation (Nm = 5.07 to 12.8). In general, the broodstocks had high intrapopulation variability, and high differentiation and genetic distance within themselves. Araujo 2 -Sergipe (AR2), Brasil. Foram encontradas diferenças nas frequências de 88 fragmentos, com quatro fragmentos exclusivos em PRC. Observaram-se altos valores de polimorfismo (54,38 a 64,38%) e índice de Shannon (0,33 a 0,37). A AMOVA mostrou que a maior variação está dentro de cada estoque. A identidade e a distância genética entre os agrupamentos variou de 0,845 a 0,975 e 0,025 a 0,156, respectivamente, com menor distância entre os agrupamentos PRC x AR1 e PRC x AR2. A diferenciação genética variou de baixa a alta (F st = 0,03 a 0,178) e o número de migrantes por geração foi baixo a alto (Nm = 5,07 a 12,8). De forma geral, os estoques apresentam alta variabilidade intrapopulacional e alta diferenciação e distância genética entre si.
Different alleles of the human and ovine prion protein gene correlate with a varying susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, the pathogenic implications of specific polymorphisms in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) are only poorly understood. Previous studies on the bovine PRNP gene investigated common European and North American cattle breeds. As a consequence of decades of intensive breeding for specific traits, these modern breeds represent only a small fraction of the bovine gene pool. In this study, we analysed PRNP polymorphisms in the native Brazilian Caracu breed, which developed in geographical isolation since the 16th century. A total of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were discovered in the coding region of the Caracu PRNP gene. Eight of the SNPs occurred at high frequencies in Caracu cattle (variant allele frequencies = 0.10-0.76), but were absent or only rarely observed in European and North American breeds. One of the Caracu SNPs was associated with an amino acid exchange from serine to asparagine (f = 0.17). This SNP was not detected in Holstein-Friesian, Simmental and German Gelbvieh and was only rarely detected in beef cattle (f = 0.01). We found 17 haplotypes for PRNP in the Caracu breed.
RESUMO O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade genética de larvas e alevinos de piracanjuba em programa de repovoamento. Foram coletadas 180 larvas de piracanjuba de três dias e 90 alevinos de três meses de idade. Foram avaliados cinco loci microssatélites, os quais produziram 19 alelos. Não houve presença de alelos raros nem perdas de alelos ao longo do período. A heterozigosidade observada foi superior nas larvas em relação aos alevinos. Houve desvio no equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg na maioria dos loci em ambos os grupos. O coeficiente de endogamia foi positivo em ambos os grupos, sendo a média dos alevinos superior em relação às larvas. O excesso de heterozigotos foi significativo no modelo Stepwise Mutation Model para os alevinos, indicando a possibilidade de efeito gargalo recente. Conclui-se que, apesar da adequada variabilidade genética encontrada, os valores do coeficiente de endogamia e a possibilidade de efeito gargalo nos alevinos atentam para a necessidade de constante monitoramento genético desses estoques antes da liberação no ambiente.
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