Abstract-Management of residual limb volume affects decisions regarding timing of fit of the first prosthesis, when a new prosthetic socket is needed, design of a prosthetic socket, and prescription of accommodation strategies for daily volume fluctuations. This systematic review assesses what is known about measurement and management of residual limb volume change in persons with lower-limb amputation. Publications that met inclusion criteria were grouped into three categories: group I: descriptions of residual limb volume measurement techniques; group II: studies investigating the effect of residual limb volume change on clinical care in people with lower-limb amputation; and group III: studies of residual limb volume management techniques or descriptions of techniques for accommodating or controlling residual limb volume. We found that many techniques for the measurement of residual limb volume have been described but clinical use is limited largely because current techniques lack adequate resolution and insocket measurement capability. Overall, limited evidence exists regarding the management of residual limb volume, and the evidence available focuses primarily on adults with transtibial amputation in the early postoperative phase. While we can draw some insights from the available research about residual limb volume measurement and management, further research is required.
A multi-segment kinematic spine model has been developed and validated for analysis of spinal motion during walking. By understanding the spine's role during ambulation and the cause-and-effect relationship between spine motion and lower limb motion, preoperative planning may be augmented to restore normal alignment and balance with minimal negative effects on walking.
BackgroundCurrent upper limb prostheses do not replace the active degrees-of-freedom distal to the elbow inherent to intact physiology. Limited evidence suggests that transradial prosthesis users demonstrate shoulder and trunk movements to compensate for these missing volitional degrees-of-freedom. The purpose of this study was to enhance understanding of the effects of prosthesis use on motor performance by comparing the movement quality of upper body kinematics between transradial prosthesis users and able-bodied controls when executing goal-oriented tasks that reflect activities of daily living.MethodsUpper body kinematics were collected on six able-bodied controls and seven myoelectric transradial prosthesis users during execution of goal-oriented tasks. Range-of-motion, absolute kinematic variability (standard deviation), and kinematic repeatability (adjusted coefficient-of-multiple-determination) were quantified for trunk motion in three planes, shoulder flexion/extension, shoulder ab/adduction, and elbow flexion/extension across five trials per task. Linear mixed models analysis assessed between-group differences and correlation analysis evaluated association between prosthesis experience and kinematic repeatability.ResultsAcross tasks, prosthesis users demonstrated increased trunk motion in all three planes and shoulder abduction compared to controls (p ≤ 0.004). Absolute kinematic variability was greater for prosthesis users for all degrees-of-freedom irrespective of task, but was significant only for degrees-of-freedom that demonstrated increased range-of-motion (p ≤ 0.003). For degrees-of-freedom that did not display increased absolute variability for prosthesis users, able-bodied kinematics were characterized by significantly greater repeatability (p ≤ 0.015). Prosthesis experience had a strong positive relationship with average kinematic repeatability (r = 0.790, p = 0.034).ConclusionsThe use of shoulder and trunk movements by prosthesis users as compensatory motions to execute goal-oriented tasks demonstrates the flexibility and adaptability of the motor system. Increased variability in movement suggests that prosthesis users do not converge on a defined motor strategy to the same degree as able-bodied individuals. Kinematic repeatability may increase with prosthesis experience, or encourage continued device use, and future work is warranted to explore these relationships. As compensatory dynamics may be necessary to improve functionality of transradial prostheses, users may benefit from dedicated training that encourages optimization of these dynamics to facilitate execution of daily living activity, and fosters adaptable but reliable motor strategies.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1743-0003-11-132) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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