Coding techniques have always been a major area of scientific interest. Due to this interest, many coding schemes were invented. Eventually, their implementation in various systems contributed in the evolvement of Wireless Communications. A breakthrough was definitely Turbo coding. Particularly, the concept of joining two or more convolutional encoders in parallel (PCCC) or in serial (SCCC), along with the iterative decoding technique, literally raised the expectations of the anticipated BER performance. In fact, Concatenated Convolutional Codes clearly outperform convolutional codes. Moreover, various systems, either under development or either for future use, will have high standards. The previous systems should present exceptional tolerance of noise effects and consequently a low overall number of received errors. For this purpose a new PCCC design was developed. The system's performance analysis, using an AWGN channel, showed better results for various iterations compared to other schemes such as typical PCCC, SCCC and finally a Convolutional encoder with a Viterbi decoder.
A telecommunication system uses carriers in order to transmit information through a cable or wirelessly. If each time only one carrier is transmitted, then the system's signal will not be immune to frequency selective fading. If frequency selective fading includes the working frequency of the system, then the wireless link will not be established. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is the primary solution for coping with inter-signal interference and frequency-selective fading. Many carriers can be produced by splitting a fast information stream to slower data series. Different orthogonal frequencies carry slower data series. System's performance can be further enhanced with the utilization of Turbo Codes. Turbo codes make the system more immune to noise effects with excellent BER results. This paper presents the thorough analysis of a Turbo Coded OFDM scheme using a PCCC technique in the presence of a channel which includes AWGN, Phase noise (PN), Rayleigh fading, Rician fading and Doppler shift.
Wireless communication systems have greatly advanced during the last years. A significant contributor in these systems’ performance has been Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). Since its invention, it is considered to be a technological leap. This leap in splitting an information stream in multiple frequency carriers has been adapted by various scientists working on the development of wireless systems. Moreover, as OFDM presented excellent tolerance of channel fading and noise signals, the evolvement in terms of speed and reliability was consequent, because only a small stream of information is lost due to noise effects. OFDM along with the knowledge that Turbo codes is another excellent scheme of reducing BER, has triggered us to expand our research. So, we experimented in simulation level not only in joining OFDM with Turbo Codes but even in finding a better Turbo scheme compared to a typical PCCC, SCCC and a Convolutional encoder with Viterbi decoder. As the last goal has already been accomplished, in this paper is presented the new OFDM system consisted of our Turbo scheme. The analysis of the previous system took into consideration the effects of an AWGN channel. Also, this noise analysis was conducted using a simulation platform with specific attributes such as transmitting and receiving fixed number of subcarriers (2048 carriers after IFFT block) while using different types of convolutional concatenated codes, such as PCCC (Parallel), SCCC (Serial) and the new PCCC scheme. The results clearly show not only the improvement in the BER performance of the Turbo Coded OFDM systems (compared to others consisted of Viterbi decoders) but the overall superiority of the proposed design
Schumann resonance oscillation detection is a complex procedure which requires customized and high-quality measurement systems. The primary objective of this work was to design and implement a stand-alone, portable, and low-cost receiver able to measure as much Schumann resonance harmonics as possible. Design, as well as detailed analysis of the efficient induction coil magnetic antenna and the low-noise amplifying-filtering chain, is presented. The detection system includes two coils back to back, resulting in a total coil length of 60 cm. The filtering and amplification chain exhibits an experimentally measured total passband gain equal to 112 dB at 10 Hz and as low as 2.88 nV/√Hz equivalent input noise. In order to validate the new portable ELF Schumann resonance detection and monitoring system, we took measurements at various spots "relatively" free from man-made electromagnetic pollution. Results have shown very clear Schumann resonance peaks for the first six modes with 10-min acquisition time.
In this paper, a prototype photoplethysmography (PPG) electronic device is presented for the distinction of individuals with congestive heart failure (CHF) from the healthy (H) by applying the concept of Natural Time Analysis (NTA). Data were collected simultaneously with a conventional three-electrode electrocardiography (ECG) system and our prototype PPG electronic device from H and CHF volunteers at the 2nd Department of Cardiology, Medical School of Ioannina, Greece. Statistical analysis of the results show a clear separation of CHF from H subjects by means of NTA for both the conventional ECG system and our PPG prototype system, with a clearly better distinction for the second one which additionally inherits the advantages of a low-cost portable device.
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is vastly used in wireless networks. Its superiority relies on the fact that information can be split in large amount of frequencies. Each frequency is called information subcarrier. OFDM exhibits excellent annotation in channel fades and interferers as only a few subcarriers can be affected and consequently a small part of the original data stream can be lost. Orthogonality between frequencies ensures better spectrum management and obviates the danger of intersymbol interference. However, an essential problem exists. OFDM systems have high peak to average power ratio. This implies large fluctuations in signal power, ending up in increasing complexity of ADCs and DACs. Also, power amplifiers must work in a larger linear dynamic region. In this paper we present two new techniques for reducing Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR), that can be added in any OFDM system and we compare them with other existing schemes
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