As far as we know this is the first report of elevated serum BDNF levels in patients with recent trauma. Based in animal models that implicate BDNF in memory formation and consolidation, higher BDNF in recent PTSD could be related to memory and learning disruption central in PTSD psychopathology.
OBJETIVO: O artigo apresenta a adaptação transcultural do Parental Bonding Instrument, um questionário auto-aplicável desenvolvido em 1979 e usado desde então para avaliar a percepção da qualidade do vínculo com os pais até os 16 anos. MÉTODO: Foram realizadas as etapas de equivalência conceitual, equivalência dos itens, equivalência semântica, equivalência operacional, equivalência funcional e aprovação da versão final pelo autor original do instrumento. RESULTADOS: Os critérios de equivalência foram satisfeitos, tendo a versão final sido aprovada pelo autor do instrumento original. CONCLUSÃO: A adaptação do Parental Bonding Instrument disponibiliza para uso um instrumento que já demonstrou ser extremamente útil em pesquisas de risco e resiliência nas últimas décadas, ao avaliar a percepção de características do comportamento dos pais tradicionalmente associadas ao desenvolvimento da personalidade.
Three-factor structures are preferable to two-factor structures. The Kendler model was the only one to provide an acceptable fit, but it must be considered that it was a female sample, and when considering gender subgroups other studies have found the same results. Despite the gender limitation, the present study contributes to a better understanding and use of the PBI in Brazilian samples.
Objective To identify factors associated with a history of suicide attempt in medical students. Methods A Web‐based survey was sent out to a sample of medical students. A multi‐predictor Poisson regression was performed to identify factors associated with a history of suicide attempt. In addition, an elastic net regularization was used to build a risk calculator to identify students at risk for attempted suicide. Results A total of 4,840 participants were included in the study. Prevalence of suicide attempts in the sample was 8.94%. Risk factors associated with past suicide attempt in the multi‐predictor Poisson regression were as follows: female gender (P < 0.001); homosexuality (P < 0.001); low income (P = 0.026); bullying by university peers (P = 0.006); childhood (P = 0.001) or adult (P = 0.001) trauma; family history of suicide (P = 0.005); suicidal ideation within the last month (P < 0.001); daily tobacco use (P = 0.037); and being at severe risk for alcohol abuse (P = 0.023). Our elastic net model performed well with an AUC of 0.83. Conclusions This study identifies a number of key factors associated with a history of suicide attempts among medical students. Future longitudinal studies should assess the causal relationship between these factors and suicide attempts. Additionally, these results demonstrate that current available data on suicide attempts among medical students can be used to develop an accurate risk algorithm.
Profundal sediments of Lake Constance were sampled at 60–130 m water depth and studied with respect to the population sizes and depth distribution of mixotrophic and lithotrophic iron‐oxidizing, denitrifying bacteria. The sediment cores showed a distinct stratification with oxygen and nitrate being consumed within the first centimeter of the sediment. The sediment contained large amounts of acid‐extractable iron (0.8–1.4% of the dry mass). The proportion of ferrous iron in the solid phase increased dramatically from 16–35% in the oxidized surface layer to 79–97% below 4‐cm depth, whereas the total iron content increased only slightly with depth. The concentration of dissolved ferrous iron in the pore water ranged between 10 and 80 μM, which was about three orders of magnitude lower than the total iron content of the solid phase. The redox profile of the pore water iron followed that of the solid phase. Most probable numbers (MPNs) of acetate‐oxidizing, denitrifying bacteria in the different cores ranged from 1.0×106 to 2.1×108 cells (ml sediment)−1; highest numbers were found in the upper sediment layer. In most cores, bacteria capable of iron oxidation made up a significant part (1–58%) of the total cultivable denitrifying population. Between 1.0×104 and 5.8×105 cells ml−1 oxidized iron mixotrophically; the numbers of lithotrophic iron‐oxidizing denitrifiers were about one order of magnitude lower. MPNs of mixotrophic iron oxidizers and aerobic iron oxidizers among the denitrifying populations in the upper sediment layers were in the same range. Generally, the MPNs of the different iron‐oxidizing populations did not change significantly with depth.
The authors elaborate on the historical evolution of the concept of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The authors quote the French scholars, mainly Charcot and Janet, as the first to connect traumatic events and symptoms of hysteria. The contributions of Freud are described with enphasis on his effort into integrating the intra-psychic and environmental dimensions. Kardiner is referred as the author who coined the concept of 'war neurosis', which was deemed as an important one during the Second World War and Vietnam War. In conclusion, the authors highlight that the concept of PTSD used in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) by the American Psychiatric Association assess, at the same time, how treatening was the traumatic event and the list of symptoms presented by the patients.
ResumoIntrodução: O estabelecimento de uma aliança terapêutica de boa qualidade em uma psicoterapia psicanalítica é fundamental para o processo terapêutico. Este estudo avaliou a influência do nível de funcionamento defensivo do paciente na qualidade da aliança terapêutica estabelecida durante a psicoterapia. Método: Para avaliação da qualidade da aliança estabelecida, pacientes em psicoterapia psicanalítica e seus respectivos terapeutas responderam ao Helping Alliance Questionnaire (versão paciente e versão terapeuta, respectivamente). O nível defensivo foi inferido através da Escala de Funcionamento Defensivo proposta no Manual de Diagnóstico e Estatística das Perturbações Mentais, quarta edição, texto revisado. Resultados: Não houve associação entre o estabelecimento de uma aliança terapêutica de boa qualidade e o nível defensivo do paciente. No entanto, houve diferença significativa quando a versão do terapeuta foi comparada com a respondida pelo paciente: os pacientes estabeleceram uma aliança terapêutica de melhor qualidade em relação a seus terapeutas do que o inverso. Conclusão: O fato de a aliança terapêutica de boa qualidade ter se estabelecido independentemente do nível defensivo do paciente sugere que o treinamento e as características pessoais do terapeuta podem levar a uma capacidade de conectar-se com o paciente, apesar do grau de comprometimento do seu funcionamento psíquico. Descritores: Psicoterapia, psicanálise, mecanismos de defesa, aliança terapêutica. AbstractIntroduction: The quality of a therapeutic alliance is essential in psychoanalytic psychotherapy and influences the therapeutic process. This study evaluated the relationship between the level of defense mechanisms and the quality of therapeutic alliance established during psychotherapy. Method: Patients in psychotherapy and their respective therapists completed the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (patient version and therapist version, respectively). The level of defenses was inferred by the Defensive Functioning Scale proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision. Results: There was no association between the quality of therapeutic alliance and the patient's level of defense mechanisms in this sample. On the other hand, there was a difference when the therapist version was compared to the patient version: patients established a stronger therapeutic alliance in relation to their therapists. Conclusion:The lack of influence of defense level in the quality of therapeutic alliance suggests that the therapist's training and personal characteristics may lead to the ability of connecting with the patient, despite impairment in their psychic functioning.
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