Anal Pap smears alone were not sensitive enough to rule out anal dysplasia. We recommend that high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy be incorporated as a complementary screening test for anal dysplasia in high-risk patients. Following baseline high-resolution anoscopy, these individuals could be followed with serial anal cytology to dictate the need for future high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsies.
Colonoscopic examination of the entire colon remains the standard for visualization, biopsy and treatment of colonic affections. The incidence of complication of endoscopy of the large bowel is quite low, even in a school hospital.
Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) was introduced in 1983 as a minimally invasive technique allowing the resection of adenomas and early rectal carcinomas unsuitable for local or colonoscopic excision which would otherwise require major surgery. After 25 years, there is still much debate about the procedure. This article presents the TEM technique, indications, results and complications, focusing on its role in rectal cancer. The controversial points addressed include long-term results, TEM in high-risk T1 lesions, TEM associated with combined modality therapy (CMT) for invasive rectal cancer and salvage therapy after TEM. The future perspectives for TEM are promising and its association with CMT will probably expand the select group of patients who will benefit from the procedure.
Perineal hernia (PH) is formed by the protrusion of intra-abdominal viscera through a defect in the pelvic floor. This is a rare complication after conventional abdominoperineal resection, pelvic exanteration, proctectomy, and other pelvic procedures. The purpose of the present paper is to report 4 cases of PH after laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer and to review literature data about the incidence, predisposing factors, and treatment of this challenging problem. When added to other 3 cases previously reported in the Brazilian series of laparoscopic surgery, this group of 7 cases comprises a PH incidence of 3.5% after rectal resection procedures. Surgical treatment is indicated only in symptomatic patients with no signs of cancer recurrence. Proposed methods of surgical repair include abdominal, perineal, or combined approaches to the hernia in association with the use of autologous tissues or prosthetic meshes. Preventive measures are represented by closure of the pelvic peritoneum whenever possible, primary perineal suture and wound care to avoid infection.
PURPOSE: Anal stenosis is a rare, incapacitating, and challenging condition, occurring mainly after hemorrhoidectomy, for which several surgical techniques have been devised. The purpose of this study was to describe early and late (1 year) results of 77 anoplasty operations performed in the Colorectal Unit of our institution. METHODS: From 1977 to 2002, 77 patients with moderate to severe anal stenosis underwent surgery using two sliding graft techniques: 58 underwent Sarner´s operation and 19 underwent Musiari´s technique. Bilateral flaps were used in 7 patients. RESULTS: Early morbidity was due to pruritus occurring in 2 patients, urinary infection in 1, and temporary incontinence in 1 patient. One patient needed early reoperation following suture line dehiscence. Late results (1 year) were classified as good in 67 cases (87%). There was no reoperation due to recurrence of stenosis. Conclusion: The ease of performance, good functional results, and lack of severe complications show that Sarner´s and Musiari´s flap advancement techniques are effective and safe methods for surgical correction of anal stenosis, particularly when cutaneous fibrosis plays a major role in its etiology.
Stapling is simple to accomplish, has low postoperative pain and rate of complications, however, the incidence of late reoperations is rather high and therefore major follow-up for better analysis is required.
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